Apraxia and neglect Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Apraxia and neglect Deck (68):
1

premotor cortex is associated with what area of brain?

cerebellum

2

supplemental motor cortex is associated with what area of brain?

basal ganglia

3

With simple finger movements, what areas of brain are active?

primary motor and sensory

4

With complex finger movements, which area of the brain is acitve?

Bilateral suplemental motor area and primary motor and sensory

5

With mental rehearsal of complex finger movements, what area of the brain is active?

only supplemental area

6

Supplemental motor area is associated with what type of movements?

Internally generated movements

7

Supplemental motor area associated with movements that have or have not been prelearned?

SMA associated with movements that HAVE been previously learned (think BG and parkinsons, motor patterns)

8

During what type of practice is the supplemental motor area active?

during mental practice

9

With what type of cue is the premotor cortex active?

When movement initiation is dependent on an external cue

10

What type of sensory input is the premotor cortex most active with and why?

most active when movement is visually guided b/c it interacts with the parietal cortex

11

Premotor cortex is most active in which phase of learning?

early phase of learning

12

What type of neurons are associated with the premotor cortex?

mirror neurons which fire when movement is watched

13

What phase of movement is the primary motor cortex associated with?

Movement initiation

14

What type of movements are associated with the Primary motor cortex?

Fine motor control
Novel Movements
Highly fractionated movements

15

What visual pathway is the inferior parietal lobule associated with?

"Where" visual pathway

16

What type of map does the Inferior parietal lobule generate?

Spatial map of body and environment

17

What do you get with a lesion of the Inferior parietal lobule?

Optical ataxia, apraxia

18

What is apraxia?

Difficulty or inability in executing appropriate and purposeful movements despite absence of paresis, ataxia or sensory loss, comprehension, attention or willingness to perform the movement

19

What three things does apraxia affect?

Affects previously learned movements
affects ability to learn new tasks
Affects non-paretic side

20

What type of damage does Apraxia usually result from?

Parietal lobe damage-esp. inf. parietal
Sometimes frontal motor association area damage

21

What hemisphere is usually damaged with apraxia?

Usually left hemisphere (dominant)

22

What type of damage can cause ideomotor apraxia?

Dominant parietal, sometimes Primary Motor cortex

23

What is the most common form of apraxia?

Ideomotor apraxia

24

What type of deficits do you see with ideomotor apraxia?

Motor planning deficits
Breakdown betwen concept and performance

25

Between what two structures is there a lack of communication in ideomotor apraxia?

Inferior parietal lobule does not communicate movement parameters with the Primary motor cotex

26

Pts with ideomotor apraxia have difficulty performing spontaneous mvmts or mvmts on command?

Movements on command OR initiating gestures

27

What is the movement quality of someone with ideomotor apraxia?

Awkward and clumsy

28

What muscles will be overused in ideomotor apraxia and why?

Proximal muscles will be overused to compensate for impairment of distal musculature control

29

What is it called when someone with ideomotor apraxia gets stuck on a movement?

perseveration

30

What type of understanging about an object do pts with ideomotor apraxia have?

Usually can describe the use of an object but cannot sequence movements to use it correctly (due to motor planning deficits)

31

What is oral motor apraxia?

Same disorder as ideomotor apraxia except it affects the lips and face, including purposeful movements associated with speaking and facial expression

32

Is ideational apraxia more or less severe than ideomotor apraxia?

A more severe form of motor planning defecit than ideomotor apraxia

33

What is the main difference between ideomotor apraxia and ideational apraxia?

With ideomotor apraxia you can still conceptualize the task, you just cannot correctly sequence the motor plan. With ideational apraxia you cannot conceptualize the motor task

34

With ideational apraxia, how well do pts perform a series of tasks

badly

35

What types of errors do those with ideational apraxia make?

misuse/mislocation of objects
sequencing errors
omission errors

36

What do more severe cases of ideational apraxia look like?

cannot describe the motor task or the use of the object
have no spontaneous movement

37

What is Constructional apraxia?

The inability to construct or copy simple designs or models

38

What area of the brain is affected with constructional apraxia?

Visual association cortex of NONDOMINANT parietal lobe

39

Are patients with constructional apraxia aware of their mistakes?

yes

40

What is dressing apraxia?

inability to dress oneself properly due to a disorder in body schema or spatial relationships

41

What area of the brain is affected with dressing apraxia?

NONDOMINANT occipital or parietal lobe

42

go review assessment and treatment principals

NOW!!!

43

What is Agnosia?

Inability to recognize

44

What is tactile agnosia?

cannot recognize objects by touch

45

What area of the brain is affected with tactile agnosia?

areas 5,7 of the non dominant parietal lobe

46

what is visual agnosia?

cannot recognize by wight

47

With visual agnosia, what area of the brain is affected?

"What" pathway
-vis. association areas 18, 19 for nonsymbolic objects
-nondominant inferior parietal lobule for symbols like words/signs

48

What is auditory agnosia?

cannot recognize by sound (e.g. moo for cow)

49

What part of the brain is affected with auditory agnosia?

Superior part of temporal lobe, bilateral damage

50

What is autotopagnosia?

AKA somatoagnosia
Inability to identify the body or its parts or to orient them correctly

51

What area of the brain is affected with autotopagnosia?

nondominant inferior parietal lbule (area 39, 40)

52

What is anosognisa?

unaware or denial of illness

53

What area is affected with anosognisa?

Nondominant inferior parietal lobule (area 39,40)

54

What is prosopagnosia?

Inability to recognize faces

55

What area of the brain is damaged with prosopagnosia?

Damage to nondominant occipto-temporal area ("what pathway")

56

What is neglect?

Failure to report, orient toward, or respond to stimuli on the contralateral side of space that cannot be attributed to sensory or motor dysfunction

57

What is personal space?

area pertaining directly to the body

58

What is peripersonal space?

space within reacing distance

59

What is extrapersonal space?

area beyond reach

60

What area of the brain is usually lesioned in pts with neglect?

Usually nondominant inferior parietal lobe (39,40)
-occasionally nondominant frontal, thalamus or basal ganglia

61

What is the incidence of neglect with a RCVA?

13-81%. real specific...

62

What effect does neglect have on patient outcomes?

poorer outcomes than pts without neglect

63

What does neglect often occur with?

anosognosia

64

What are the two proposed mechanisms of neglect?

disorder of attention
Disorder of coding visual information

65

review testing and intervention for neglect

NOW!!!!!

66

What is right parietal syndrome?

damage to the non-dominant (right) hemisphere, esp. parietal lobe, often resulting in severe perceptual defecits that often occur in combination

67

What are symptoms of an internal capsule stroke?

Pure motor hemiplegia and/or pure sensory hemianesthesia

68

What are some symptoms of a hypoperfusion (dorderzone/watershed) stroke?

Weakness shoulder>arm>face
anomic aphasia (word recall)
ideational apraxia