AQA AS Computing: 7.2 Computer Architecture Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in AQA AS Computing: 7.2 Computer Architecture Deck (21)
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1

Hardware

Electronic/electrical circuits that a computer is assembled from. The platform on which the software executes.

2

Main memory

Memory that is directly addressable by the processor

3

Memory location

A separately addressable area of main memory

4

RAM

Random access memory; volatile main memory in which the locations can be accessed directly in any order with the same access time for all writing and reading operations

5

ROM

Read only memory; non-volatile main memory that cannot be written to once it is set up

6

EEPROM

Electrically erasable programmable read only memory; its contents may be altered but writing is about 100 times slower than reading

7

Computer bus

A set of parallel wires connecting independent components of a computer system

8

System bus

The main highway connecting the processor, main memory and I/O controllers; it is made up of a data bus, an address bus and a control bus

9

I/O

Allows the CPU to communicate with peripherals

10

Peripheral

A computer device that is not part of the CPU. It can be external (e.g. mouse, keyboard, printer, monitor, memory stick or scanner) or internal, such as a CD-ROM drive

11

I/O device

A hardware unit that sends or receives data or stores data by communicating with the processor and main memory through an I/O controller

12

I/O controller

An electronic circuit that connects to a system bus and an I/O; it provides the correct voltages and currents for the system bus and the I/O device.

13

Secondary storage

Permanent storage memory not directly connected to the processor; also called backing store.

14

Main memory address

A unique numeric code corresponding to a location in memory.

15

Stored program concept

A program must be resident in main memory to be executed; it is processed by fetching machine code instructions in sequence from main memory and executing them, one at a time, in the processor.

16

Register

A very fast memory location inside the processor or I/O controller.

17

General purpose register

A register not assigned a specific role by the processor designer. Programmers may use general-purpose registers.

18

Dedicated register

A register assigned a specific role by the processor designer. Programmers may use some but not all dedicated registers.

19

Clock speed

Of a processor, the frequency in megahertz or gigahertz at which the processor executes instructions.

20

Word length

The number of digits in a binary word.

21

Bus width

The number of signal wires or lines allocated to the bus