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What is history?

History is the study of the past and the story of human activity.

1

Prehistoric.

The prehistoric period is before writhing was used.

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Historic

The historic period is when people used writing.

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Sources

Evidence that helps historians to build up a picture of the past is called a source.

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Primary source

Primary sources come directly from the past.

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Secondary source

A Secondary source is evidence that comes from a later date.

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Archeology

The study of what hs been left behind by people from the past.

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Manuscript

Before the invention of the printing press, all books and documents were called manuscripts.

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A.D

Anno domini. After Christ.

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B.C

Before Christ.

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Artefacts

Objects made by humans.

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Excavate

When archaeologist dig in the ground looking for remains from the past.

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Autobiography

An account of a person's life written by the actual person.

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Biography

The story of a persons life life written by another person.

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Cross-checking

Historians will look at as many sources as possible and then compare what they have found.

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Bias

Dose the source favour one side or another? The views of the author have to be considered. Newspapers can be biased.

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Accuracy

A measurement system can be accurate but not precise, precise but not accurate, neither, or both.

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Chronology

The order in which a series of events happened.

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Century

A century is one hundred years.

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Millennium

A millennium is a thousand years.

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Archaeologist

The person who discovered and studies the objects left behind from the past.

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Research archeology

There might be an old document showing that a building once existed on the side.

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Rescue archaeology

They want to make sure that no objects or evidence from the past are lost.

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Survey

A study carried out on the site before archaeologists start digging.

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DNA testing

DNA is present in the cells of our bodies. It is passed from generation to generation.

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Dendochronology

Dating a wooden object by the number of rings. It can also tell us about trend in weather.

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Carbon dating

Every living object contains carbon 14. When it dies the amount of carbon decreases. Historians can use this to date the object.

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Stratigraphy

Dates objects by the depth in the ground. The deeper the object, the older it is.

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Bog body

Well preserved human bodies know as bog bodies have been found in Ireland.

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Mummies

The bodies of mummies of ancient Egyptians rulers called pharaohs have been founded in deserts.

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Aerial photographys

Aerial photographs are taken. These show the size if the site and can show features that may be missed on the ground.

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Dig

The excavation or dig then begins.

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Test trenches

They will dig test trenches so that they can get some idea of the amount of remains they can expect to find.

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Post-hole

Wooden poles used for building houses leave dark around patches called post-holes

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Trowel

Layers of earth are scraped away using a trowel.

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Hand-pick

A hand-pick is used to lessen soil.

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Brushes

When an object is discorded, archaeologist have to be careful not to damage it. They will use brushes and even toothbrushes to make sure that this doesn't happen

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Hoard

Large number of gold and silver objects are often found together. They were buried for safekeeping and their owners didn't comeback for them. Archaeologists call this type of find a hoard.

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Sive

As some objects are very small, the soil is often put through a sieve to make sure that nothing is missed.

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Neolithic

New Stone Age.

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Mesopotamia

Where the first farmers came from (modern day Iran and Iraq).

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Porcellanite

A tougher heavier stone used especially for weapons.

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Wattle and daub

Technique used in the building of houses.

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Quern stone

Tool used to crush/grind wheat into flour.