Flashcards in AS MEMORY - FACTORS AFFECTING EYE WITNESS TESTIMONY; MISLEADING INFORMATION Deck (4)
Describe misleading information as a factor affecting EWT
Misleading info can be split up into leading questions and post event discussion.
Leading questions are ones that are worded to encourage one particular response. There are two expls as to why leading q's have an effect on EWT:
1) The leading q' actually altered the memory of the event
2) Leading q' only altered how ppl choose to respond i.e. if ppl are unsure then their response may have been altered by the wording of the q' but the memory itself stayed the same.
Post event discussion is when co-witnesses of a crime talk about what they have witnessed, and their memories become contaminated as a result; they combine the (potentially false) info given by other ppl with their own memories which affects recall.
Describe a supporting study for leading q's
(+ leading q's) Loftus and Palmer (1974) got all ppts to watch a video of a car crash and then had them all answer a questionnaire that had one critical q': "About how far were the cars going when they _____ each other?". C1 had "contacted", C2 had "bumped", C3 had "collided", C4 had "hit" and C5 had "smashed. Mean estimated speed for C5 was 40.5 mph compared to C1 31.8 mph
Describe a supporting study for post event discussion
(+ post event discussion) Gabbert et al (2003) paired ppts up and had them each watch a video of the same crime, but each member of the pair watched it from a different perspective, so that they saw things that their partner didn't. In C1, pairs were allowed to discuss what they'd seen and then answer the questionnaire, whilst in C2 they just answered the questionnaire straight away. In C1, 71% of ppts reported details they couldn't have seen from their video angle, whilst in C2 it was 0%.