ASIPP Geriatrics Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in ASIPP Geriatrics Questions Deck (79):
1

1738.A 67-year-old musician presents with a long history
of low back pain, Pain is worsened with prolonged
standing and with exercise, For the last several months,
the patient has noticed that the back pain comes on with
walking less than one block and radiates to the buttocks,
The pain is relieved by sitting for several minutes, On
physical examination, there are no neurologic defi cits
and bilateral straight-leg raising maneuvers are normal.
Peripheral pulses are strong and bilaterally equal. Which
of the following is the most likely diagnosis?
A. Lumbar spinal stenosis
B. Peripheral vascular disease
C. Lumbosacral sprain
D. Disk herniation
E. Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis

1738. Answer: A
Explanation:
(Tierney, 42/e, p 796.)
The patient is describing pseudoclaudication, which is
characteristic of lumbar spinal stenosis. This arises from
compression of the exiting nerve roots by a disk,
osteophyte, or narrow canal. The leg pain is most
pronounced when walking downhill or descending stairs
and takes several minutes of sitting or fl exing f
orward before resolution. Often patients who
continue to walk with pain will stoop over to relieve the
symptoms (stoop sign). Claudication is seen in peripheral
vascular disease, but the pain that occurs with walking
resolves immediately upon stopping or standing without
sitting. Peripheral pulses may be compromised. Diffuse
idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) causes
calcifi cation of the longitudinal ligaments of the spine and
is usually found in patients with diabetes mellitus

2

1739.The initial starting dose for a geriatric patient requiring
nortriptyline is:
A. 10 mg
B. 25 mg
C. 50 mg
D. 100 mg
E. 200 mg

1739. Answer: A
Source: Jackson KC. Board Review 2003

3

1740. The leading cause of death in the elderly population is
A. Heart disease
B. Malignancies
C. Cerebrovascular disease
D. Pulmonary disease
E. Trauma (e.g., Harley accidents)

1740. Answer: A
Source: Day MR, Board Review 2003

4

1741.Which of the following is true regarding hepatic changes
in the elderly:
A. Conjugation changes little with age.
B. Demethylation increases with age.
C. Liver mass decrease starting at age 40.
D. Serum albumin levels remain the same.
E. Serum blood levels of drugs with high fi rst pass metabolism
remain the same.

1741. Answer: A
Source: Day MR, Board Review 2005

5

1742. Exercise in the geriatric population has been found to
A. reduce falls.
B. increase strength
C. reduce depression
D. all of the above
E. none of the above

1742. Answer: D
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

6

1743. An elderly old woman presents with a new onset, severe
right-sided headache for 1 day. She states that the vision
in her right eye has diminished, and she complains of
claudication of her jaw when she is chewing food. On
physical examination, her right temple is tender to
palpation. The most likely diagnosis is:
A. Acute frontal sinusitis
B. Giant cell arteritis
C. Migraine headache
D. Cluster headache
E. Trigeminal neuralgia

1743. Answer: A
Explanation:
(Tierney, 42/e, pp 820-822.)
Giant cell arteritis or temporal arteritis usually
appears after the age of 55 and is more common
in women than men. Patients typically present with
severe headache, malaise, fever, and tenderness
over the involved temporal artery. Patients may
have ocular symptoms due to ischemic optic neuropathy
(blindness is an irreversible complication) and complain
of jaw pain when chewing (jaw claudication). Polymyalgia
rheumatica (limb girdle stiffness and pain, weight loss,
malaise) may be seen in up to 30% of patients with
temporal arteritis. Patients suspected of having temporal arteritis require immediate corticosteroids; diagnosis is
confi rmed by temporal artery biopsy. Trigeminal neuralgia
(tic douloureux) causes severe unilateral facial pain but is
not associated with vision changes or claudication. Cluster
headaches occur mostly in men and are characterized by
periorbital or temporal pain lasting up to 2 h and
accompanied by lacrimation and ptosis. Patients complain
of several attacks a day for several weeks followed by a
period of remission.

7

1744.An elderly woman being treated for spinal stenosis,
presents with a new problem with the sudden onset of
severe left-sided chest pain that radiates in a bandlike
fashion to her left side and back. Pain is excruciating and
area is hyperesateric. Heart and lung examinations are
normal. No rash is visible. Electrocardiogram is normal.
The most likely diagnosis is:
A. Gastroesophageal refl ux disease
B. Myocardial infarction
C. Herpes zoster
D. Costochondritis
E. Dissecting aortic aneurysm

1744. Answer: C
Explanation:
(Tierney, 42/e, pp 105-106.)
Herpes zoster is due to reactivation of latent
varicella virus; patients typically present with a
history of pain, tingling, or itching of the affected
area followed by an eruption of vesicles overlying
an erythematous base. Although the disease can
disseminate and produce diffuse eruptions, it typically
presents with involvement of a single dermatome. The
disease is not limited to adults or immunocompromised
patients and may be seen in children.

8

1745.A 66-year-old man has the chief complaint of pain and
numbness over the lateral aspect of the right thigh. He has
no back pain or diffi culty ambulating. The symptoms are
relieved by sitting. Physical examination is normal except
for impaired cutaneous sensation over the affected lateral
aspect of the right thigh. There is a negative straight-leg
raise maneuver; motor strength and deep tendon refl exes
are normal. Romberg test is negative. Which of the
following is the most likely diagnosis?
A. Peroneal nerve palsy
B. Meralgia paresthetica
C. Vitamin B12 defi ciency
D. Sciatic nerve palsy
E. Femoral neuropathy

1745. Answer: B
Explanation:
(Tierney, 42/e, p 997.)
The patient describes symptoms due to compression of the
lateral femoral cutaneous nerve arising from the L2 and L3
roots (meralgia paresthetica). Entrapment of the nerve at
any point from hyperextension of the hip may cause
symptoms. Symptoms are usually mild, but patients may
require hydrocortisone injections medial to the iliac spine.
Patients with femoral neuropathy present with weakness
and wasting of the quadriceps muscle, sensory
impairment,and an absent patellar refl ex. The
Romberg test is performed by having the patient
stand with feet together, head erect, and eyes open.
The patient is then examined for steadiness and
then asked to close his or her eyes. A positive test
occurs when the patient displays increased unsteadiness
with the eyes closed but not with the eyes open.
A positive Romberg test may be seen in diseases that
affect the dorsal columns, such as tabes dorsalis and
vitamin B12 defi ciency

9

1746.An elderly woman presents with paresthesias of the
feet and an unsteady gait for several months. Other
than a previous history of anemia, the patient has no
past medical history. She takes no medications and
does not smoke cigarettes or drink alcohol. On physical
examination, the patient is alert and oriented but cannot
recall three objects after 5 min. Her gait is unsteady and
broad-based, and she has increased muscle tone in the
lower extremities. Muscle strength is normal, but the
patient has diminished sensation to vibration from the
midcalf areas to the feet. Patellar and ankle refl exes are
absent bilaterally. The patient has bilateral extensor
Babinski refl exes and a positive Romberg test. Laboratory
data reveal a macrocytic anemia. Which of the following
is the most likely diagnosis?
A. Vitamin B12 defi ciency
B. Tabes dorsalis
C. Lead poisoning
D. Vitamin B6 defi ciency
E. Vitamin E defi ciency

1746. Answer: A
Explanation:
(Tierney, 42/e, pp 474-475.)
The patient most likely has vitamin B12 defi ciency due to
pernicious anemia (lack of intrinsic factor). Patients show
loss of posterior column sensation (vibration and position
sense), positive Romberg test, mild spasticity, and
bilateral extensor plantar refl exes (upper motor neuron).
Patients may also present with mild dementia or
psychiatric symptoms. The polyneuropathy associated
with B6 (pyridoxine) defi ciency is associated with
isoniazid use. Lead poisoning causes a motor neuropathy (i.e., wristdrop, footdrop) and requires chronic exposure
to lead as an adult. Tabes dorsalis due to tertiary syphilis
causes progressive sensory loss, ataxia, and a positive
Romberg test, but patients complain of severe lancinating
leg pain. Patients are not spastic and do not have a positive
Babinski sign. Vitamin E defi ciency is seen in liver disease,
cystic fi brosis, and other malabsorption syndromes;
patients present with ataxia and peripheral neuropathy.

10

1747.Compared with young adult patients undergoing stroke
rehabilitation, geriatric patients require
A. more medication to prevent recurrent stroke.
B. longer rehabilitation hospitalization.
C. more nasogastric tube feedings.
D. bladder catheterizations more frequently.
E. lesser rehabilitation hospitalization.

1747. Answer: B
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

11

1748.A 70-year-old woman presents with poorly articulated
phrases but understands commands. Choose correct
diagnosis:
A. Upper motor neuron disease
B. Lower motor neuron disease
C. Myelopathy
D. Radiculopathy
E. Broca’s aphasia

1748. Answer: E
Explanation:
(Seidel, 5/e, p 798.)
Upper motor neuron (UMN) disease (above the level of
the corticospinal synapses in the gray matter) is
characterized by spastic paralysis, hyperrefl exia,
and a positive Babinski refl ex (everything is up in UMN
disease). Lower motor neuron (LMN) disease (below the
level of synapse) is characterized by fl accid paralysis,
signifi cant atrophy, fasciculations, hyporefl exia, and a
fl exor (normal) Babinski refl ex (everything is down in
LMN disease). A radiculopathy occurs with root
compression from a protruded disk that causes sensory
loss, weakness, and hyporefl exia in the distribution of the
nerve root. Myelopathy causes severe sensory loss 0
posterior column sensation (position sense and vibration),
spasticity, hyperrefl exia, and positive Babinski refl exes.
Broca’s aphasia (left inferior frontal gyrus) is a nonfl uent
expressive aphasia (Broca’s should remind you of broken
speech); Wernicke’s aphasia (left posterior-superior
temporal gyri) is a receptive aphasia because patients lack
auditory comprehension (Wernicke’s should remind you
of wordy speech that makes no sense).

12

1749.During evaluation of an elderly woman with severe
arthritic pain, it is noted that she has a poor appetite,
insomnia, and anxiety. A likely secondary consequence
of her pain in this setting that should also be treated
includes:
A. Acute delirium
B. Clinical depression
C. Dementia
D. Failure to thrive
E. Generalized anxiety diseases

1749. Answer: B
Explanation:
Clinical depression is a common consequence of untreated
or undertreated pain. Signs and symptoms may include
insomnia, amxiety, agitation, aggression, loss of appetite,
and refusal of care.
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

13

1750.Independent of bone mineral density, in elderly women,
the factor contributing to an increased risk of fracture
secondary to a fall includes:
A. Obesity
B. Daily wine consumption
C. Poor visual acuity
D. Use of coumadin
E. Height

1750. Answer: C
Explanation:
(a) Kanis JA. Diagnosis of osteoporosis ad assessment of
fracture risk. Lancet 2002;359:1929-36.
(b) Dargent-Molina P, favier F, Grandjean H, et al. Fallrelated
factors and risk of hip fracture: the EPIDOS
prospective study [published erratum]

14

1751.Which of the following abnormality is most common in
the disabled elderly population?
A. Epilepsy
B. Movement disorders
C. Transient ischemic attacks
D. Dementia
E. Stroke

1751. Answer: B

15

1752.Which of the following agents would be best tolerated
in a medically debilitated patient for post-herpetic
neuralgia?
A. Amitriptyline
B. Desipramine
C. Maprotiline
D. Doxepin
E. Trazodone

1752. Answer: B

16

1753.The major factor causing poor compliance with medical
advice by the elderly is
A. Drug costs
B. Race issues
C. Number of drugs
D. Communication
E. Insurance

1753. Answer: C

17

1754.In managing pain in the elderly patients, it is best to use
drugs in the following manner:
A. Start low and go slow for all medications.
B. Use high-dose, short-acting narcotics initially to get the
pain under control.
C. Avoid use of acetaminophen, due to liver toxicity.
D. Start with aspirin, which is safe and effective.
E. Start with transdermal fentanyl

1754. Answer: A
Explanation:
Physiologic changes with aging, including slowed
absorption, metabolism, and elimination of medications,
may lead to excess sedation, confusion, constipation, and
urinary retention in geriatric patients. Thus, low initial
doses are indicated, with slow upward titration.
Acetaminophen is safe and effective for moderate pain.
Aspirin in higher doses is associated with bleeding
complications.
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

18

1755.In general, patients who have chronic obstructive
pulmonary disease and are undergoing pulmonary
rehabilitation should maintain an arterial oxygenation
level no less than
A. 95%
B. 93%
C. 88%
D. 85%
E. 90%

1755. Answer: C
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

19

1756.The exercise program benefi cial for patients with
rheumatoid arthritis is:
A. High intensity progressive resistance exercises
B. Low-load, high-reception resistance exercise
C. Walking 3 to 4 times per week.
D. A program incorporating any of the above
E. None of the above programs

1756. Answer: D
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

20

1757.A 67-year-old man presents with an episode of right
face, arm, and leg weakness that resolved on arrival to the
emergency room. Choose appropriate diagnosis:
A. Basilar artery stroke
B. Middle cerebral stroke
C. Anterior cerebral stroke
D. Transient ischemic attack
E. Posterior cerebral stroke

1757. Answer: D
Explanation:
(Tierney, 42/e, pp 962-963.)
Basilar artery stroke causes quadriplegia, sensory loss,
and cranial nerve involvement; patients may present
with coma or locked-in syndrome. Wallenberg
syndrome or lateral medullary syndrome causes
an ipsilateral weakness of the palate and vocal cords,
ipsilateral ataxia, ipsilateral Horner syndrome, and
ipsilateral loss of facial pain and temperature but
contralateral loss of body pain and temperature sensation.
There is no limb weakness in Wallenberg syndrome.
Anterior cerebral stroke causes unilateral leg weakness and
sensory loss. Posterior cerebral artery stroke causes an
occipital stroke and a homonymous hemianopsia. Middle
cerebral artery stroke causes hemiplegia or hemiparesis
greater in the arm than the leg, aphasia, unilateral sensory
loss, and eyes that deviate to the side of the hemispheric
lesion. Patients with lacunar infarcts may present with
different syndromes, such as dysarthria and mild
hemiparesis (clumsy-hand dysarthria). Lacunar infarcts
represent small artery occlusions; hypertension and
diabetes are risk factors for these infarcts. Patients in a
vegetative state from diffuse cortical damage have
spontaneous eye opening and movement without evidence
of awareness.

21

1758. In the elderly, scopolamine-induced delirium is
A. Absent with doses less than 0.4 mg
B. Decreased by physostigmine
C. Reversible with diazepam
D. Reversible with pyridostigmine
E. Similar to that produced by glycopyrrolate

1758. Answer: B
Source: American Board of Anesthesilogy, In-trainnig
examination

22

1759.An elderly female has swelling and pain in several
of the interphalangeal (IP) joints of her hand. X-ray
examination reveals arthritic changes. Which agent
should not be prescribed?
A. Indomethacin
B. Acetaminophen
C. Tolmetin
D. Naproxen
E. Piroxicam

1759. Answer: B
Explanation:
Reference: Hardman, pp 631-633.
All of the drugs listed, except acetaminophen, are usually considered NSAIDs, a large group of structurally
dissimilar compounds. These drugs share the
pharmacologic properties of the prototype compound,
aspirin, in that all have analgesic, antipyretic, and antiinfl
ammatory effects. The mechanism of action that is
responsible for the effect of NSAIDs is reduction in the
formation of eicosanoids (e.g., prostaglandins,
thromboxanes) by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase.
Acetaminophen differs from the other drugs in that it is a
very weak anti-infl ammatory agent; however, it is an
effective analgesic and antipyretic
Source: Stern - 2004

23

1760.A 71-year-old woman presents with aphasia and severe
right-sided hemiparesis greater in the arm than the
leg. Her eyes deviate to the left. Choose appropriate
diagnosis:
A. Basilar artery stroke
B. Middle cerebral stroke
C. Anterior cerebral stroke
D. Transient ischemic attack
E. Posterior cerebral stroke

1760. Answer: B
Explanation:
(Tierney, 42/e, pp 962-963.)
Basilar artery stroke causes quadriplegia, sensory
loss, and cranial nerve involvement; patients may
present with coma or locked-in syndrome.
Wallenberg syndrome or lateral medullary syndrome
causes an ipsilateral weakness of the palate and vocal
cords, ipsilateral ataxia, ipsilateral Horner syndrome, and
ipsilateral loss of facial pain and temperature but
contralateral loss of body pain and temperature sensation.
There is no limb weakness in Wallenberg syndrome.
Anterior cerebral stroke causes unilateral leg weakness and
sensory loss. Posterior cerebral artery stroke causes an
occipital stroke and a homonymous hemianopsia. Middle
cerebral artery stroke causes hemiplegia or hemiparesis
greater in the arm than the leg, aphasia, unilateral sensory
loss, and eyes that deviate to the side of the hemispheric
lesion. Patients with lacunar infarcts may present with
different syndromes, such as dysarthria and mild
hemiparesis (clumsy-hand dysarthria). Lacunar infarcts
represent small artery occlusions; hypertension and
diabetes are risk factors for these infarcts. Patients in a
vegetative state from diffuse cortical damage have
spontaneous eye opening and movement without evidence
of awareness.

24

1761.An eldery woman presents with back pain for several
months. She denies recent trauma. She has no weight
loss or loss of appetite. She has no fever, chills, or night
sweats. Physical examination reveals a dowager hump
and mild kyphotic bowing of the spine. Serum calcium,
phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, and parathyroid hormone levels are normal. The following is the most
appropriate next step in diagnosis of this patient:
A. Lumbar spine radiographs
B. MRI of the spine
C. CT densitometry of the lumbar spine
D. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry
E. Bone scan

1761. Answer: D
Explanation:
(Tierney, 42/e, pp 1114-1115.)
Risk factors for osteoporosis include white, Asian-Pacifi c
Islander, and Native American race; Northwestern
European descent; blonde or red hair; freckles;
thin body frame; nulliparity; early menopause;
family history of osteoporosis; postmenopause;
constant dieting; calcium intake

25

1762.What is the most common cause of dementia in the
elderly?
A. Parkinson’s disease
B. Neoplasm
C. Stroke
D. Depression
E. Alzheimer’s disease

1762. Answer: E
Source: Day MR, Board Review 2005

26

1763.An elderly man presents with the chief complaint of
leg pain, associated with headache and defi ciency with
walking. On physical examination, the patient has
bowing of the lower extremities and the right lower
extremity is longer than the left lower extremity. The
physical examination is normal, except for hearing loss
and war legs. Laboratory data reveal an isolated elevated
serum alkaline phosphatase level. The fo11owing is the
most likely diagnosis in this patient.
A. Vitamin D defi ciency
B. Paget’s disease
C. Cerebral vascular accident
D. Parkinson’s disease
E. Metastatic bone disease

1763. Answer: B
Explanation:
(Tierney, 42/e, pp 1119-1120.)
Paget’s disease of bone
(osteitis deformans) is a disorder in which normal bone is
replaced by disorganized trabecular bone. Patients may be
asymptomatic but may present with increased hat size
(skull enlargement), hearing loss (involvement of the
ossicles of the inner ear), facial pain, headache, backache,
leg pain, growth of the lower extremities (one leg may be
longer than the other), tibial bowing, and increased blood
fl ow to the involved areas of bone growth. Alkaline
phosphatase may be elevated, and a bone scan will detect
the lytic lesions. A complication of paget’s disease is
osteosarcoma (

27

1764.The most commonly prescribed analgesic in the elderly
chronic pain population is:
A. Tramadol
B. Acetaminophen
C. Non-steroidal anti-infl ammatory drugs
D. Opioids
E. Anti-epileptic drugs

1764. Answer: C
Source: Day MR, Board Review 2005

28

1765.Polymyalgia rheumatica is:
A. Twice as common in males as females
B. Responds only to high dose steroids
C. Affects distal muscle groups
D. More common in people of southern European decent
E. Almost exclusively found in Caucasians

1765. Answer: E
Source: Day MR, Board Review 2005

29

1766.In patients undergoing a rehabilitation program after a
hip fracture, benefi t from weight-bearing exercises can
A. improve walking velocity
B. decrease incidence of hip dislocation
C. decrease risk of prosthetic failure
D. improve pain control.
E. improve sleeping pattern

1766. Answer: A
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

30

1767. Post-hepatic neuralgia is:
A. More common in women
B. Most often involves lumbar dermatomes
C. Incidence increases with age
D. Gradually worsens with time
E. Pain that persists for 12 month

1767. Answer: C
Source: Day MR, Board Review 2005

31

1768.Proportion of institutionalized elderly persons is
estimated to suffer from chronic pain is:
A. 20%
B. 50%
C. 80%
D. Less than 5%
E. 90%

1768. Answer: C
Explanation:
Chronic pain is estimated to affect 80% of institutionalized
elderly people. Causes include skeletal pain related to
osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, cervical and lumbar
spondylosis, osteoporosis, and fractures with resultant
deformities. Neuropathic pain related to peripheral
neuropathy from diabetes mellitus, previous stroke, and
postherpetic neuralgia also occurs. Pain with peripheral
vascular and cardiovascular diseases, skin ulcers, and
cancer also occur with greater frequencies in this
population.
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

32

1769. Which of the following CNS changes are associated with
aging?
1. Absent or decreased ankle jerk refl exes
2. High frequency hearing loss
3. Reduced information retrieval
4. Decreased muscle tone

1769. Answer: A (1, 2 & 3)
Source: Day MR, Board Review 2005

33

1770. GI changes associated with the elderly include:
1. Decreased gastric acid production
2. Increased lower esophageal sphincter tone
3. Decreased esophageal transit time
4. Increased intestinal blook flow

1770. Answer: B (1 & 3)
Source: Day MR, Board Review 2005

34

1771.True statement/s regarding temporal arteritis include/s:
1. More common in men
2. Vision changes is the leading symptom
3. Sedimentation rate is normal
4. Requires a biopsy to prove diagnosis

1771. Answer: D (4 only)
Source: Day MR, Board Review 2005

35

1772.Hepatic changes associated with aging include:
1. Decrease in conjugation
2. Decrease in demethylation
3. Increase in oxidation
4. Decrease in liver mass

1772. Answer: C (2 & 4)
Source: Day MR, Board Review 2005

36

1773.The objective/s of physical therapy and rehabilitation
is/are:
1. Stabilize the primary disorder
2. Prevent secondary disabilities
3. Decrease pain perception
4. Treat functional defi cits

1773. Answer: E (All)
Source: Day MR, Board Review 2005

37

1774.An elderly woman is being discharged from the acute
rehabilitation unit after a stroke that resulted in right
hemiparesis. When ordered by a physician and medically
justifi ed. Which service is covered under Medicare?
1. Transportation for medical appointments
2. Spasticity medications
3. Dressing assistance in the morning.
4. Front-wheeled walker

1774. Answer: D (4 Only)
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

38

1775. Characteristics of Azheimer’s disease include:
1. Increase in acetyltransferase
2. Affects aging populations equally
3. A rapidly progressive disorder
4. Mostly affects the Nucleus basalis of Meynert

1775. Answer: C
Source: Day MR, Board Review 2005

39

1776.Pharmacodynamic change/s associated with aging is/
are:
1. Increased sensitivity to opiods
2. Decreased sensitivity to adrenergic specifi c drugs
3. Decreased sensitivity to cholinergic specifi c drugs
4. Decreased sensitivity to benzodiazepines

1776. Answer: A (1, 2 & 3)
Source: Day MR, Board Review 2005

40

1777.Appropriate strategies to manage polypharmacy in
elderly persons include the following:
1. Person-to person patient and family education
2. Use of clinical decision support systems and protocols
3. Assessment of potential drug interactions when starting
a new medication
4. Maintenance of chronic medication regimens despite an
acute medical change

1777. Answer: A (1, 2, & 3)
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

41

1778.Ventilatory function is impaired in the elderly for which
of the following reasons?
1. Decreased intercostal and diaphragmatic muscle mass
and function
2. Loss of alveolar spaces and septa, which resembles emphysematous
changes
3. Decreased pulmonary parenchymal and chest wall
elasticity
4. Diminished hypoxic drive

1778. Answer: E (All)
Explanation:
(Miller, 4/e. 2151-2152.)
Hypoxic and carbon dioxide drive is not lost in the elderly,
but it may be diminished. Therefore, the elderly are at
great risk for hypoxia and hypercarbia from anesthetic
drugs that cause respiratory depression. Another factor
adding to potential pulmonary failure in the elderly is
complex mechanical changes that involve the chest wall,
diaphragm, and pulmonary parenchyma.
Source: Curry S.

42

1779.Changes in cardiac physiology that occur in the elderly
include
1. a decrease in beta receptor responsiveness but no change
in receptor density
2. increased responsiveness of the geriatric heart to indirect-
acting beta mimetics such as ephedrine
3. degenerative changes of the SA node, AV node, and cardiac
conduction system
4. higher resting heart rates

1779. Answer: B (1 & 3)
Explanation:
(Miller, 4/e, pp 2150-2151.)
There is no change in beta receptor density in the elderly;
however, function is diminished, which affects inotropicity
and chronotropicity. Also, as a result of diminished
function, there is diminished responsiveness in both direct
and indirect beta sympathomimetic drugs. There are
degenerative fi brotic changes throughout the conduction
system, which can lead to heart blocks. Resting heart rate is
decreased
Source: Curry S.

43

1780. Age changes in the hepatic system include a reduction in
1. First pass metabolism
2. Microsomal oxidation
3. Demethylation
4. Glucuronidation

1780. Answer: B (1 & 3)

44

1781.Which of the following regarding Polymyalgia
Rheumatic are true?
1. More common over the age 55 yrs
2. Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate
3. Associated with temporal arteritis
4. Elevated creatine kinase

1781. Answer: A (1, 2, & 3)

45

1782. In the elderly, drug effects are infl uenced by:
1. Decreased renal function
2. Increased volume of distribution
3. Reduced hepatic function
4. Decreased relative body fat

1782. Answer: B (1 & 3)

46

1783. Age changes in the renal system include a reduction in
1. Creatinine clearance
2. Renal blood fl ow
3. Glomerular fi ltration
4. Free water clearance

1783. Answer: A (1, 2, & 3)

47

1784.Grapefruit juice increases serum levels of all of the
following medications
1. warfarin.
2. thoephylline.
3. cyclosporine.
4. nonsteroidal anti-infl ammatory drugs

1784. Answer: A (1, 2, & 3)
Explanation:
Grapefruit juice inhibits hepatic enzyme metabolism and
increases the serum levels of certain medications, for
example, warfarin, theophylline, and cyclosporine.
Source: Source: Podrazik PM, Schwarts JB. Cardiovascular
pharmacology of aging. Cardiol Clin 1999;17:17-34.

48

1785. Changes in the central nervous system (CNS) that occur
in the geriatric population include
1. a progressive decline in CNS function with a loss of
cerebral cortex neurons
2. decreased cerebral metabolic rate and decreased cerebral
blood fl ow
3. a decrease in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and
receptor sites for them
4. a need for increased doses of local anesthetics when
epidural anesthesia is performed

1785. Answer: A (1, 2, & 3)
Explanation:
(Miller, 4/e. pp 2147-2148.)
There is a generalized decline in the CNS with aging. MAC
decreases as a result. Local anesthetic requirements
decrease as well as for all nerve blocks.
Source: Curry S.

49

1786.Changes in cardiac output in the elderly are correctly
characterized by which of the following statements?
1. Cardiac output declines more with age in women than
in men
2. Increases in cardiac output that occur with stress decline
with aging
3. Coronary blood fl ow needs are decreased in the elderly
for a given cardiac output
4. Persons who maintain physical aerobic fi tness may have
unchanged cardiac output from the third to the sixth
decade

1786. Answer: C (2 & 4)
Explanation:
(Miller, 4/e. pp 2150-2151.)
Cardiac output does not necessarily decline with aging.
Persons who maintain aerobic fi tness may have unchanged
cardiac output well into the seventh decade, at which point
cardiac output will fall off. In the elderly there is a loss of
an increase in cardiac output in response to stress, but this
is attenuated somewhat in the elderly who are fi t.
Source: Curry S

50

1787. Considerations in elderly patients include that
1. body fat decreases, as does the half-life of fat-soluble
drugs
2. impaired hypothalamic function, which mediates heat
control, is the primary reason the elderly become hypothermic
more easily than do the young
3. right bundle branch blocks are common in healthy,
asymptomatic elderly patients and in most cases should
be considered a normal fi nding
4. they have widened pulse pressure

1787. Answer: D (4 Only)
Explanation:
(Stoelting, Anesthesia and Co-Existing Disease, 3/e. pp
631-633.)
Body fat increases (in women more than in men) and fatsoluble
drugs have a longer elimination half-life in the
elderly. Hypothalamic dysfunction may be one factor that
contributes to a greater degree of heat loss in elderly
patients, but the primary reason for a propensity to
hypothermia is impaired cutaneous vasoconstriction and
reduced heat production (basal metabolic rate declines
from 42 kcal/h in a 20-year-old to 32 kcal/h in an 80-yearold
person). Healthy, asymptomatic elderly patients have a
high incidence of supraventricular and ventricular ectopic
beats. A right bundle branch block is not a normal
fi ndings and should prompt a search for organic heart
disease. Systolic blood pressure increases in the elderly as
the aorta and large arteries lose distensibility. Diastolic
pressure normally does not change much with age.
Source: Curry S.

51

1788. The type(s) of exercise training widely accepted as the
optimal way to enhance and maintain function in older
adults include:
1. Endurance
2. Flexibility
3. Balance
4. Resistance

1788. Answer: D (4 Only)
Explanation:
Endurance exercises have effects on cardiovascular
impairment, leading to improvements in morbidity and
mortality, but their effect on function is limited. Resistance
training enhances function and is accepted as the optimal
means to maintain function in older adults. Flexibility and
balance probably also contribute to function but adequate
studies designed for the purpose of evaluating disability
are lacking.
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

52

1789.Regarding interdisciplinary assessment, the following
benefi ts apply to the geriatric population.
1. It allows the development of specifi c, targeted interventions.
2. It allows reliable testing of persons over time.
3. It allows better reimbursement and insurance coverage
for outpatient and home-based interventions.
4. It allows care providers to develop independent treatment
plans.

1789. Answer: A (1, 2, & 3)
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

53

1790.Which physiologic factor in the elderly exacerbates
orthostasis?
1. Decreased creatinine clearance
2. Decreased peripheral resistance
3. Decrease in arterial stiffness
4. Decreased baroreceptor response

1790. Answer: D (4 Only)
Explanation:
As many as 20% of persons over the age of 65 years and
30% of those over age 75 have orthostatic hypotension.
Orthostasis is often exacerbated because of an increase in
arterial stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, decreased
baroreceptor response, and low plasma rennin activity.
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

54

1791.True statements regarding pain in the elderly persons
are as follows:
1. Elderly persons feel pain as much as younger people.
2. Pain can commonly be localized to a single site.
3. Approximately one third of elderly individuals have
chronic joint pain and arthritis.
4. Pain results in less functional impairment in the elderly
compared with the younger population.

1791. Answer: B (1 & 3)

55

1792.True statements regarding falls in the geriatric
population include the following:
1. Most falls are considered accidental, rather than related
to underlying diseases or functional impairments.
2. The timed “Get up & Go” test is an appropriate way to
assess someone who presents with frequent falls.
3. Dynamic balance training activities such as Tai Chi have
no effect on fall risk or fear of falling.
4. Fall risk assessment should evaluate both intrinsic and
extrinsic risk factors.

1792. Answer: D (4 Only)
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

56

1793.The factor(s) improving bowel transit time in persons
with chronic constipation include:
1. Bedrest
2. Bulking agents
3. Fluid restriction
4. High fiber diet

1793. Answer: C (2 & 4)
Explanation:
Schiller LR. Constipation and fecal incontinence in the
elderly. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 2001; 30:497-515.

57

1794. Drugs used in the treatment of dementias include which
of the following?
1. Nonsteroidal antiinfl ammatory drugs
2. Anticholinesterase drugs
3. Antioxidant agents
4. Muscarinic antagonists

1794. Answer: A (1, 2, & 3)

58

1795.Which of the following changes in renal function will
occur in the geriatric population?
1. An increase in renal cortical blood fl ow versus renal
medullary blood fl ow occurs
2. Decreased muscle mass in the elderly leads to decreased
creatinine levels
3. There are no changes in urine concentrating ability
4. Decreased renal blood fl ow occurs because of decreased
cardiac output and a decrease in size of the renal vascular
bed

1795. Answer: C (2 & 4)
Explanation:
(Miller, 4/e. pp 2146-2147.
)
Renal blood fl ow decreases in the elderly because of a
decrease in cardiac output and a decrease in the size of the
renal vasculature, particularly the cortex. This leads to
reduced renal cortical blood fl ow and decreased
glomerular fi ltration rate (GFR), concentrating ability, and
creatinine clearance. With the decrease in creatinine
clearance, there is also a decrease in muscle mass and
production of creatinine. This explains why serum
creatinine levels do not decrease in the elderly. Any
increase in creatinine in the elderly signifi es a large
decrease in an already diminished GFR.
Source: Curry S.

59

1796.Endocrinologic changes that occur in the elderly
include
1. a greater incidence of primary hyperparathyroidism
2. increased incidence of diabetes mellitus
3. increased incidence of Graves’ disease
4. increased incidence of hypothyroidism

1796. Answer: C (2 & 4)
Explanation:
( Stoelting, Anesthesia and Co-Existing Disease, 3/e. pp
633-636.)
Primary hyperparathyroidism and Graves’ disease do not
have an increased incidence in the elderly. Adult-onset
diabetes occurs with greater frequency in the sixth and
seventh decades. Circulating insulin levels are normal. It is
believed that the cause of diabetes in this age group may
be
insulin receptor dysfunction. Thirteen percent of the
elderly population have hypothyroidism; the vast majority
are asymptomatic. The only abnormal measure of thyroid function may be an elevated level of thyroid stimulating
hormone. The most common cause of hypothyroidism is
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.
Source: Curry S.

60

1797.Regarding foot care, compared with the general
population, diabetic patients
1. are 15 to 17 times more likely to require an amputation.
2. have a 10-year survival rate of 25% to 50% after an
amputation.
3. are less likely to be noncompliant with foot checks.
4. Have a 15% rate of amputation if a chronic ulcer is
present.

1797. Answer: B (1 & 3)
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

61

1798.Activities associated with a reduced risk of dementia
include:
1. Playing musical instruments
2. Dancing
3. Playing board games
4. Bowling

1798. Answer: A (1, 2, & 3)
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

62

1799. True statements about the hepatobiliary system in the
geriatric age group include
1. hepatic blood fl ow decreases as a result of decreased
cardiac output
2. a decrease in activity of hepatic microsomal enzymes
occurs
3. production of albumin is decreased
4. hepatic vein blood fl ow decreases

1799. Answer: E (All)
Explanation:
(Miller, 4/e. pp 2145-2146.)
The reduction in hepatic blood fl ow is commensurate with
the decrease in cardiac output that occurs in the elderly.
Hepatic microsomal enzyme activity also decreases in the
ages. Drug clearance and metabolism are reduced in the
elderly, but the cause of this is probably the decrease in
cardiac output rather than diminished enzyme activity.
Hepatic vein blood fl ow and albumin levels are
diminished in the elderly.
Source: Curry S

63

1800.The benefi ts of hiring older workers (compared with
younger colleagues) in medical industry include
1. fewer workers compensation claims.
2. less use of health care benefi ts.
3. decreased rate of burns.
4. lower absentee rates.

1800. Answer: D (4 Only)
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

64

1801. Dementias are characterized by
1. Generalized limitation of cognitive function
2. Cholinergic dysfunction
3. Progressive decline in function
4. Depression of consciousness

1801. Answer: A (1, 2, & 3)

65

1802.Elderly patients generally show increased sensitivity to
which of the following drugs?
1. Phenylephrine
2. Diazepam
3. Oxycodone
4. Morphine

1802. Answer: C (2 & 4)

66

1803.In the general geriatric population, the factor(s)
associated with an increased risk of driving accidents
are as follows:
1. Hemodialysis
2. Chronic Pain
3. Myopia
4. Stroke

1803. Answer: D (4 Only)
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

67

1804.In elderly patients, conditions contraindicating to
starting an exercise program are:
1. End-stage congestive heart failure
2. Recent ophthalmologic surgery
3. severe behavioral disturbance
4. Stable 3-cm abdominal aortic aneurysm

1804. Answer: A (1, 2, & 3)
Explanation:
The condition that is not a contraindication to starting an
exercise program in an elderly patient from the listed
choices is a small or stable abdominal aortic aneurysm. All
the other conditions warrant further investigation and
stabilization before initiating an exercise program.
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

68

1805.Which statement concerning osteoarthritis (OA) is true?
1. Exercise in patients with OA contributes to pain reduction.
2. Group exercise programs are much more effective than
individual programs in reducing disability
3. High-intensity progressive resistance exercises in patients
with OA causes the disease to progress.
4. Exercise in patients with OA contributes to pain reduction.

1805. Answer: D (4 Only)
Explanation:
Exercises for patients with osteoarthritis (OA) is
considered to be safe and to contribute to the reduction of
pain. Exercise programs have not been associated with
disease progression. No clear difference has been noticed
in the reduction of disability when comparing group,
individual, and home-based exercise programs. Aerobic
exercise is effective in correcting reductions in aerobic
capacity in patients with OA.
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

69

1806.Which physiologic changes related to aging is included
among factors that necessitate decreased loading doses
for water soluble medications?
1. Increased fat mass
2. Decreased muscle mass
3. Decreased total body water
4. Decreased cardiac output

1806. Answer: A (1, 2, & 3)
Explanation:
Increased fat mass, decreased muscle mass, and decreased
total body water affect the distribution of medications.
Normal pshsiologic changes of aging include decreased
intestinal motility, decreased cardiac output, and decreased
creatinine clearance.
Source:Fulop T Jr, Worum I, Csongor J, Foris G, Leovey A.
Body composition in elderly people. I.Determination of
body composition by multiisotope method and the
elimination kinetics of these isotopes in healthy elderly
subjects. Gerontology 1985; 31:6-14.

70

1807. Pharmacokinetic changes in the elderly include
1. Increased volume of distribution
2. Deceased lean body mass
3. Increased lipid content
4. Longer beta elimination

1807. Answer: E (All)

71

1808.A 75-year-old sedentary man with a history of
hypertension, type II diabetes mellitus, and mild sensory
neuropathy who is currently a nonsmoker wishes to
begin an exercise program. The safest initial modality of
exercise includes the following:
1. Treadmill walking at 1.5mph on level surface
2. Stair stepper for 15 minutes without resistance
3. Machine-based quadriceps extensions at 80% maximum
weight
4. Lifting 1- to 3-pond weights overhead while seated

1808. Answer: D (4 Only)
Explanation:
Bean JF, Vora A, Frontera WR. The benefi ts of exercise for
community-dwelling older adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil
2004;85(Suppl 3):S31-42.

72

1809.Risk factor(s) for erectile dysfunction in elderly men
include the following:
1. Recurrent inguinal hernia.
2. pharmacologic side effects.
3. hypothyroidism
4. Low testestrone levels

1809. Answer: C (2 & 4)
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004

73

1810.Important pharmacologic considerations in the elderly
include that
1. the dose of thiopental in elderly patients should be decreased
primarily because of altered pharmacokinetics
2. the elimination half-life of diazepam in hours approximates
the patient’s age in years
3. the dose of atracurium need not be adjusted for age
4. the MAC for isofl urane in a 40-year-old is 1.15 and in an
80-year-old is 0.97

1810. Answer: E (All)
Explanation:
(Miller, 4/e. pp 2143-2146.)
The initial volume of distribution for thiopental is
decreased, which causes higher serum concentrations in
older compared with younger patients. Elderly and
younger patients respond to similar serum concentrations
of thiopental. The clearance of diazepam is reduced in the
elderly, which accounts for its longer duration of action.
Cognitive impairment can continue for a very long time
after administration of this drug in the elderly. Unlike all
other nondepolarizing muscle relaxants, attacurium is
independent of age-related changes. Decreases in MAC
occur with age for isofl urane and the other potent
inhalational agents.
Source: Curry S.

74

1811.True statements concerning the elderly include
1. there is a direct correlation between biologic age and
chronologic age
2. the fi ve most frequently performed surgical procedures
are cataract extraction, transurethral, prostatectomy,
herniorrhaphy, cholecystectomy, and reduction of a
hip fracture
3. geriatric patients are arbitrarily defi ned as those older
than 75 years of age
4. generalized osteoporosis may be an important factor in
the increased incidence of hip fractures in the elderly

1811. Answer: C (2 & 4)
Explanation:
(Stoelting, Anesthesia and Co-Existing Disease, 2/e, pp
633 – 637.)
There is no defi nite correlation between biologic age and
chronologic age. In patients who maintain aerobic fi tness,
there may be no changes in cardiac output until well into
the seventh decade. Physical fi tness will even decrease
osteoporosis and may cause a decrease in the incidence of
hip fractures. Patients who do not maintain aerobic fi tness
may show signs of osteroporosis and decreases in cardiac
output that make them biologically older than those who
do. Geriatric patients are arbitrarily defi ned as those over
65 years of age.
Source: Curry S.

75

1812.Major anatomic changes seen in the cardiovascular
system in the elderly include
1. an increase in left ventricular wall thickness
2. myocardial fi brosis
3. valvular fi brocalcifi cations
4. loss of elasticity of the peripheral circulation

1812. Answer: E (All)
Explanation:
(Miller, 4/e. pp 2150 – 2151.)
Explanation: All the listed changes are normal parts of the
aging process. Atherosclerosis superimposed on these
changes only exacerbates the decrease in cardiovascular
function, particularly a decrease in cardiac output.
Source: Curry S.

76

1813.Parkinson’s Disease is noted to include which of the
following clinical fi ndings?
1. Painful dystonias
2. On/Off phenomena (freezing)
3. Cognitive dysfunction
4. Tremors

1813. Answer: E (All)

77

1814. An 85-year-old, 300-pound man underwent right upper
lobectomy. Which of the following would be acceptable
techniques to provide adequate postoperative pain relief?
1. Cryoneurolysis of the right intercostal nerves at multiple
levels
2. Continuous segmental epidural analgesia with local
anesthetic
3. Intercostal blocks with long-acting local anesthetic on
the right at multiple levels
4. Intercostal blocks with long-acting local anesthetic bilaterally
at multiple levels

1814. Answer: A (1, 2, & 3)
Explanation:
(Capan, p 691.)
In elderly patients with high body mass
indices, bilateral intercostal nerve blocks at T5-T11 were
found to change the relationship between closing capacity
and functional residual capacity, leading to hypoxemia and
hypercarbia. This did not occur in younger patients with
normal body mass indices. Cyroneurolysis, unilateral
intercostal nerve blocks, and epidural analgesia are
acceptable techniques for providing postoperative
analgesia and decreasing pulmonary dysfunction.
Source: Kahn and Desio

78

1815. In the elderly population
1. Cold pressor response is decreased
2. Nociceptors demonstrate increased sensitivity
3. Cutaneous electrical current threshold decreases
4. Mechanical pressure threshold decreases

1815. Answer: E (All)

79

1816.Your suspect that your elderly patient is being abused
by a family caregiver. To assess this risk, the element
evaluated include:
1. Stress
2. Alcoholism
3. Violence
4. Driving

1816. Answer: A (1, 2, & 3)
Source: Arch Phys Med Rehabil Vol 85, Suppl 3, July 2004