What is stimulability?
Assessing if the child has the physical/oro-motor capabilities to produce the required sound through IMITATION in ISOLATION
What is independent analysis?
Independent analysis is a description of what the child can do (without reference to the correct adult form/target phonology). A phonetic inventory is produced with the vowels, consonants, clusters, number of syllables etc.
What is relational analysis? What data do we get from it?
Relational analysis describes the accuracy a child achieves in producing the target sounds. It can be used to describe either phonetic patterns, based on MOTOR-BASED descriptions of the child’s patterns or phonological analysis based on phonological descriptions of the individuals patterns. We collect information on PCC, PVC, % occurrence of processes.
Describe Shriberg’s Speech Disorders Classification System
Considers the different typologies and aetiologies of SSDs, and shows the longitudinal prediction for each (speech delay, motor speech disorders, speech errors). These either end up as normalised speech or persistent speech disorder.
What are the classifications in Dodd’s differential diagnosis of SSD? What is the prevalence of each?
Articulation disorder – 10% Delayed phonological acquisition – 60% Consistent speech disorder – 20% Inconsistent speech disorder – 10% CAS – rare
How does Dodd classify the areas of breakdown? Where can deficits occur?
- Input processing
- Cognitive linguistic impairment – deficits in lexical knowledge (vocabulary, rule learning)
- Output processing – generating phonological plans, motor accuracy, phonetic programming and motor execution
What is an articulation disorder? What are some possible causes?
An articulation disorder is a SPEECH disorder that affects the PHONETIC level. The child has difficulty saying particular consonants and vowels. Errors are produced the SAME way across contexts.
1. Unknown (e.g., children with functional speech disorders who do NOT have serious problems with muscle function)
2. Structural anomaly (e.g. very high palate, missing teeth)
3. Motor disorder e.g. dysarthria
What is a phonological delay? What are some of its features? What are possible causes?
All error patterns occur during normal development, but are typical of a child of a YOUNGER age.
Typical error patterns: gliding, fronting, stopping, WSD, voicing.
Causes: poor language-learning environment, intermittent hearing loss (middle ear infections), generally slower maturation, mild overall delay
What are some associated deficits with phonological delay?
Non-word spelling, articulation errors, slower development of rule derivation. But NOT PA, input processing or oro-motor skills → therefore reading/writing is unlikely to be affected
What is a consistent phonological disorder? What are some examples? What are possible causes?
The child has difficulty organising their speech sounds into a system of sound contrasts (phonemic contrasts).
At least one error pattern that is classified as atypical. For instance, backing, initial consonant deletion, vowel errors.
Possible genetic link; rule obstruction (children with consistent phonological disorders have poor phonological representations and therefore find it difficult to learn the rules of phonology).
What are some associated deficits with consistent phonological disorders?
PA, literacy, rule derivation, cognitive flexibility.
But NOT input processing or oro-motor skills
What is an inconsistent phonological disorder? What are possible causes?
Inconsistent production of the same sound in the same context.
Causes: basically unknown, thought to be associated with birth injuries/complications
What are some associated deficits with inconsistent phonological disorders?
Spelling, learning new words, OT tasks for learning
new fine motor programs
(e.g. haven’t learned motor programs for words).
BUT NOT: PA, reading, rule derivation, input processing or oro-motor skills (oro-motor skills outside of speech are good).