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NURS 327 Medical Surgical Nursing > Assessment of Hematologic System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Assessment of Hematologic System Deck (123)
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1

What is hematology?

The study of blood and blood forming tissues. Includes the bone marrow, blood, spleen, and lymph system

2

A basic knowledge of hematology is useful in clinical settings to evaluate the patients ability to transport 02 and CO2, maintain ____________ volume, coagulate blood and combat ____________

intravascular volume; infections

3

The assessment of the hematologic system is based on ......

diagnostic studies, physical examination and the patients health history

4

What is hematopoiesis ?

Blood cell production that occurs within the bone marrow

5

Which type of marrow actively produces blood cells ?

Red bone marrow

6

Where is the red marrow primarily found ?

In the flat and irregular bones such as the ends of long bones, vertebrae, sacrum, sternum, ribs, flat cranial bones and scapulae

7

What are the three types of blood cells ?

WBC, RBC, platelets

8

When tissue hypoxia occurs, what happens , regarding the production of blood cells ?

Erythropoietin, a cytokine protein, is released by the liver and kidney and it circulates to the bone marrow and stimulates the production of RBC.

9

Albumin helps to regulate the ________ ____________ within the blood

oncotic pressure

10

Thrombocytes

another name for platelets

11

Blood is a type of ___________ tissue that performs 3 major functions: ______, ______ , ______.

connective; regulation; protection; transportation

12

primary function of erythrocytes

transport O2 and CO2 and maintain acid base balance

13

Hemoglobin that has oxygen bound to it is referred to as

oxyhemoglobin

14

hemoglobin is composed of what two compounds?

Heme (an iron compound) and globin (a simple protein)

15

The heme portion of hemoglobin binds to ......

oxygen

16

The globin portion of hemoglobin binds to

CO2

17

Erythropoiesis

the process of RBC production

18

What is erythropoiesis regulated by ?

cellular O2 requirements and general metabolic activity

19

Erythropoiesis is stimulated by _________ and controlled by _________________

hypoxia; erythropoietin

20

What glycoprotein growth factor stimulates the red bone marrow to produce RBC ?

Erythropoietin

21

About how many RBC are produced per second during erythropoiesis?

2.5 million

22

Erythropoiesis is influenced by the availability of certain ______________ and _______________

nutrients and hormones

23

What is a reticulocyte?

Immature red blood cell

24

A reticulocyte can develop into mature RBCs within how many hours upon release into the circulation ?

48 hours

25

Assessing the number of reticulocytes is a useful means of evaluating .......

the rate and adequacy of erythrocyte production

26

hemolysis

destruction of RBC by macrophages and monocytes `

27

Hemolysis normally occurs where?

In the bone marrow, spleen, and liver

28

bilirubin; how does it relate to hemolysis ?

one of the components of RBC; when hemolysis occurs, there is an increased amount of bilirubin to be processed by the body. When hemolysis occurs via normal mechanisms, the liver is able to conjugate and excrete all bilirubin that is released

29

Leukocytes have a widely available life span: granulocytes may only live for ________, yet some T lymphocytes may live for _______

hours; years

30

What is the primary function of granulocytes ?

Phagocytosis