Flashcards in Inflammation/Infection/UTI/Sepsis/HIV/AIDS Deck (243)
What can cause inflammation?
Broken bones, sprains, cuts, asthma
When we have inflammation , does that mean there is an infection too?
When we have an infection, does that mean there is inflammation ?
Yes, when there is an infection there is also inflammation
Inflammatory pathophysiologic response involves ......
What is the cellular response in the inflammatory process?
When the monocytes, neutrophils and macrophages come into the injured area
Cell mediators include the
complement protein cascade systems, prostaglandins, leukotrienes
Inflammatory response depends on the ________ __________ of the individual
How well does a person respond to injury - think what factors enable a stronger response
A patient who is ________________ would be lacking in white blood cells and would have trouble initiating an effective _____________________.
immunocompromised; inflammatory response
The inflammatory response depends on the ____________ of the injury -
nature; there is a difference between being pricked by a pin and being stabbed by a knife
Three basic types of inflammation
Who are the prominent cell types present at this inflammation ?
healing occurs within 2-3 weeks
neutrophils are prominent cell type at area of inflammation
persists a little longer than acute inflammation
endocarditis for example
anything greater than 3-6 months
prominent cell types involved are the lymphocytes and the macrophages
may result from changes to the immune system (rheumatoid arthritis)
asthma and arthritis are examples
Chronic inflammation can lead to _____________
deterioration, depending on the severity
Older patients may have less response to _________
temperature. If they have an infection, we could see a slower than normal rise in temperature
3 things that will help us address inflammation
Vital signs, labs and assessment
Color (erythema )
drainage (color, amount, odor)
Questions you would ask the patient
how did the injury happen?
what medications are you taking ? (pregnisone can decrease the inflammatory process)
medical history - any diabetes (slow healing time) history of arthritis
CBC - any increase in WBC, or neutrophils or BANS
Redness, heat, pain, swelling, loss of function
increase in WBC with a shift to the left (increased number of immature WBC) malaise, nausea, anorexia, increased temp, pulse and respiratory rate
These symptoms would point to more of a systemic infection that is throughout the body
temperature, respirations, pulse, BP, pulse ox, pain
How can we minimize inflammation and infection ?
Immunizations (Tetanus, pneumonia and flu)
Good hand hygiene
nutrition helps to regenerate tissue
What is one way to assess patients nutritional level?
What might we first see in the older adult when there is an infection?
Manifestations of systemic infection
increase in temperature, pulse, respiration, decrease in pulse ox and decrease inBP
What can happen with too elevated fever levels ?
Drug therapy to decrease the inflammatory response
aspirin (blocks prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus)
Tylenol (acts on the temperature regulatory center in the hypothalamus)
NSAIDS (motrin, advil have antipyretic effects)
antipyretics should be give around the clock
Benefits of fever
increase destruction of microbes
increased proliferation of T cells
higher body temp may enhance activity of interferons