Inflammation/Infection/UTI/Sepsis/HIV/AIDS Flashcards Preview

NURS 327 Medical Surgical Nursing > Inflammation/Infection/UTI/Sepsis/HIV/AIDS > Flashcards

Flashcards in Inflammation/Infection/UTI/Sepsis/HIV/AIDS Deck (243)
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1

What can cause inflammation?

Broken bones, sprains, cuts, asthma

2

When we have inflammation , does that mean there is an infection too?

No

3

When we have an infection, does that mean there is inflammation ?

Yes, when there is an infection there is also inflammation

4

Inflammatory pathophysiologic response involves ......

vascular response
cellular response
cell mediators

5

What is the cellular response in the inflammatory process?

When the monocytes, neutrophils and macrophages come into the injured area

6

Cell mediators include the

complement protein cascade systems, prostaglandins, leukotrienes

7

Inflammatory response depends on the ________ __________ of the individual

reactive capacity

How well does a person respond to injury - think what factors enable a stronger response

8

A patient who is ________________ would be lacking in white blood cells and would have trouble initiating an effective _____________________.

immunocompromised; inflammatory response

9

The inflammatory response depends on the ____________ of the injury -

nature; there is a difference between being pricked by a pin and being stabbed by a knife

10

Three basic types of inflammation

Acute
Subacute
Chronic

11

Acute Inflammation

Who are the prominent cell types present at this inflammation ?

healing occurs within 2-3 weeks
neutrophils are prominent cell type at area of inflammation

12

Subacute inflammation

persists a little longer than acute inflammation
endocarditis for example

13

Chronic Inflammation

anything greater than 3-6 months
prominent cell types involved are the lymphocytes and the macrophages
may result from changes to the immune system (rheumatoid arthritis)
asthma and arthritis are examples

14

Chronic inflammation can lead to _____________

deterioration, depending on the severity

15

Older patients may have less response to _________

temperature. If they have an infection, we could see a slower than normal rise in temperature

16

3 things that will help us address inflammation

Vital signs, labs and assessment

17

Clinical Manifestations

Color (erythema )
temperature,
swelling,
function,
drainage (color, amount, odor)

18

Questions you would ask the patient

how did the injury happen?

what medications are you taking ? (pregnisone can decrease the inflammatory process)
medical history - any diabetes (slow healing time) history of arthritis

19

lab findings

CBC - any increase in WBC, or neutrophils or BANS

20

Local Inflammation

Redness, heat, pain, swelling, loss of function

21

Systemic inflammation

increase in WBC with a shift to the left (increased number of immature WBC) malaise, nausea, anorexia, increased temp, pulse and respiratory rate

These symptoms would point to more of a systemic infection that is throughout the body

22

Vital signs

temperature, respirations, pulse, BP, pulse ox, pain

23

How can we minimize inflammation and infection ?

Immunizations (Tetanus, pneumonia and flu)
Good hand hygiene
nutrition helps to regenerate tissue

24

What is one way to assess patients nutritional level?

Albumin levels

25

What might we first see in the older adult when there is an infection?

Confusion

26

Manifestations of systemic infection

increase in temperature, pulse, respiration, decrease in pulse ox and decrease inBP

27

What can happen with too elevated fever levels ?

seizures

28

Drug therapy to decrease the inflammatory response

aspirin (blocks prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus)
Tylenol (acts on the temperature regulatory center in the hypothalamus)
NSAIDS (motrin, advil have antipyretic effects)
corticosteroids
antipyretics should be give around the clock

29

Benefits of fever

increase destruction of microbes

increased proliferation of T cells

increased phagocytosis

higher body temp may enhance activity of interferons

30

RICE

Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation