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1

Who is Murray Schafer?

- A Canadian composer who recognized the importance of listening to soundscapes and acoustic ecology. He believed that every sound in the world is music and “if there isn’t a word to describe what something is, then it doesn’t exist”. So he created the word soundscape.

2

What is Acoustic Ecology

AKA soundscape studies, is a discipline studying the relationship, mediated through sound, between human beings and their environment. Started by Murray Schafer as part of the World Soundscape Project.

3

Define “soundscape”

word was created by Murray Schafer to describe any collection of sounds such as the sounds of the landscape around you or a virtual environment. Murray Schafer believes that the soundscape now a days is quieter than in the past as novel technologies has reduced some of the previous noise emission

4

Discuss the question, “What is music?”

Sound organized in an intentional, meaningful way, and may include a melody, harmony, rhythm, and form. It is a language of its own with expressive and communicative elements.
-Repetition, variation, and contrast basic to all musical forms

5

What are the elements of music?

A. Melody- B. Rhythm C. Texture D. Timbre E. Harmony F. Dynamics G. Word-Music Relationships
H. Form
I. Genre

6

Melody

Melody – a recognizable piece of music that includes different notes, or pitches, and rhythm in an organized way. Melody stands out from the background musical material because it is stronger, louder and played more aggressively. Can be simple or complex and can be comprised of smaller pieces called “motifs”.
-notes, scales, octave, conjunct, disjunct, tonic, cadence, phrase, theme, motiv

7

Rhythm

the systematic arrangement of musical sounds which may include a strong, regular repeated pattern of movement or sound
-Beat, Tempo, Duration, Repetition, Motives, duple, triple, simple, compound

8

Texture

term that describes what is going on in the music at any moment.
Musical texture is the way that melody, harmony, and rhythm work together.
Texture can be described in musical terms, such as monophonic, homophonic, and
polyphonic—or with adjectives, like “thin,” “thick,” and “rich.”

9

Timbre

or tone quality, describes the quality of a musical sound. Timbre is generally discussed using adjectives, like “bright,” “dark,” “buzzy,” “airy,” “thin,” and “smooth.” Many different adjectives can be effectively used to describe timbre, based on your perceptions and opinions about what you hear in the sound.

10

Harmony

refers to the vertical relationship between pitches and is created when two or more notes are sounded at the same time. Two main types of harmony
generally exist in Western music—homophony and polyphony. One additional musical
texture, monophony, does not include any harmony

11

Dynamics

refer to the changing volume levels of musical sounds. Dynamics can
range from softer than piano (soft or quiet) to fortissimo possibile (loudest
possible). Dynamics can also change, getting louder (crescendo) and getting softer (diminuendo). Dynamics and changing dynamics give the music expression, make it interesting, and add variety

12

Word-Music Relationships

difference between syllables that are sung to a single note and those that are sung to many notes.
-sung or talked

13

Form

is the organization and structure of a musical selection. The form of a work may include repeating large sections, repeating a theme or motif, or non-repeating sections. Large parts within a musical form are usually labeled with capital letters, like “A” and “B,” so we can discuss them.

14

Genre

Musical genres are broad categories used to classify music. Some genres that will be presented in Music Appreciation include Western classical and art music, world music, jazz, rock, pop, and other modern genres. Sometimes, music is grouped by instrumentation as a
genre, such as “symphony” or “string quartet.”

15

Monophony

one melody, no accompaniment
- For example some types of early chant, a solo singer, or an unaccompanied instrument—like a trumpet or flute.

16

Homophony

melody with accompaniment
-one clear melody with harmony or background material. In homophony, both the melody and its harmony can share similar rhythms

17

Polyphony

several equal melodies at the same time
-Two or more melodies may compete for importance. Rounds, canons, fugues, and many selections from the Baroque period, provide good examples of polyphony.

18

Syllabic vs. Melismatic

one note per syllable(can get story out easier/faster, provides clarity of text) vs many notes per syllable (emphasizes certain key words)

19

Concerto Grosso

Baroque piece for orchestra and soloist (s)

20

Ritornello

repeated section for full orchestra

21

Fugal Texture

imitative style of composition important in the baroque period

22

Tonic vs Dominant

1st note of a scale vs 5th note of a scale

23

Harpsichord

Keyboard instrument used in most Baroque instrumental ensemble music.
-accompanied with some kind of base instrument such as the cello, bassoon, trombone or bass that plays the baseline.

24

Behold Spring, Francesco Landini

polyphonic, 2 melodies

25

I Can All Too Well Compare My Lady, Guillaume de Machaut

3 part secular song

26

Ritornello

repeated section for full orchestra
ex. in-between the solos of Winter

27

The Cricket, Josquin des Prez

-Italian Madrigal
word painting as they mimic the sound of a cricket

28

Play of Virtues, Hildegard von Bingen

the middle ages
chant, womens voices, singing the same music in unison/monophonic (allows performers to project text clearly)
-mixing syllabic and melismatic settings
-brief resting points (cadences)
-leaps in the mostly smooth melodies(conjunct)
-most characters sing, but one speaks/shouts. Notice the clear projection of the Latin words
-Listen for the climax of the drama on the highest pitches.
-Listen for the way the irregular rhythms reflect the words being sung.
-Morality play: dramatized allegory of good and evil struggling over the fate of a single soul
Confrontations between Satan and 16 Virtues (e.g., Charity, Obedience, Humility, Chastity)
-Satan does not sing, but speaks his lines

29

Behold Spring, Francesco Landini

The Middle Age
polyphonic, 2 melodies->contrast between the melodies of the two voices, one high, one low
-one of the first to write secular music, wrote about spring love
-pulse of three beats
-brief stopping points that break the melody into smaller units= conjunct
-Smaller units end with a cadence, Smaller units make music easy to understand
-the largely syllabic text setting (one note per syllable) and the occasional melismatic setting
-Courtly love/secular polyphony
-ABAA
-Largely syllabic
Occasional melismas create variety

30

I Can All Too Well Compare My Lady, Guillaume de Machaut

The Middle Age
3 part secular song
-This is a polyphonic work for three equally important voices. Listen for the contrast in speed between the notes of the faster uppermost voice and the notes of the slower two voices below
-points of rest in the music—within the melody/cadences
-Courtly love emphasized romantic distance
-AAB Form

31

Songs to the Virgin Mary, Alfonso el Sabio

The Middle Age
Spanish sacred song—polyphonic/instrumental heterophony
-Two fairly short melodic units
-Form arises from their repetition and contrast
A and B begin similarly, but soon diverge
Three Kinds of Texture:
1. Monophony—both instruments and voice play the same notes together, in unison
2. Homophony—one voice plays/sings the melody, the other a drone bass
3. Heterophony—both voice/instruments play the same melody at the same time, but one of them plays a more elaborate and embellished form

32

The Cricket, Josquin des Prez

Renaissance
-Italian Madrigal
word painting as they mimic the sound of a cricket
-four distinct voices (polyphonic). voices sing in the same or different rhythms.
-return of the opening section. Listen for the contrast between the middle and outer sections.
Chirping, hiccupping sounds for “drinking”
Passionate, intense melisma for “love”
-Ternary Form
-shifts meters to keep listeners attention

33

Since Robin Hood, Thomas Weelkes

Renaissance
English Madrigal
-three distinct voices (polyphonic)
-shift from duple to triple meter in the middle of the piece
-descriptive nature of the music with words such as “to skip” and “trip it.”
-About an actual event in 1599
William Kemp danced (Morris Dance) from London to Norwich (140 miles) in nine days
-The Concerto->contrast between a solo instrument and a larger ensemble.

34

Winter from The Four Seasons Movement 1, Antonio Vivaldi

The Baroque Era
violin solo/orchestra
-contrast between the solo violin and the string orchestra. Notice how the soloist stands out at some points.
-alternation of long sections with and without the soloist
-Virtuosic solo displays

35

Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 Finale, Johann Sebastian Bach

The Baroque Era
solo instruments/orchestra
-This concerto is built around the ritornello principle (solo sections alternate with recurring orchestral sections).
melody is presented in turns by the soloists. This entire movement is a fugue.
concerto grosso-a concerto for multiple soloists
-A central theme is introduced and then imitated by subsequent voices

36

The Renaissance

melodies more lively and jumpy, more imitation
-interest in the human and individuality
-more expressive with the text (word painting) and polymorphic music
-invention of the printing press->allowed information to spread quickly and cheaply
-composers captured human emotions
-Polyphony typical of Renaissance madrigal

37

The Baroque Era1600–1750

Less complicated polyphony and more homophony.
Homophony made opera(secular) and oratorio(sacred) possible (story telling) *emergence of the orchestra
Emphasized energy, motion, ornamentation, and extremes
Absolute Music
-trumpet, violin, organ, harpsichord
-expression of one emotion
-Fugue

38

The Baroque Era1600–1750

Less complicated polyphony and more homophony.
Homophony made opera(secular) and oratorio(sacred) possible (story telling) *emergence of the orchestra
Emphasized energy, motion, ornamentation, and extremes
Absolute Music= program music, extra musical idea expressed (ex. Winter) means what you want it to
-trumpet, violin, organ, harpsichord
-expression of one emotion
-Fugue
-vivaldi, bach and handel

39

The Baroque Era1600–1750

Less complicated polyphony and more homophony.
Homophony made opera(secular) and oratorio(sacred) possible (story telling) *emergence of the orchestra
Emphasized energy, motion, ornamentation, and extremes
Absolute Music= program music, extra musical idea expressed (ex. Winter) means what you want it to
-trumpet, violin, organ, harpsichord
-expression of one emotion
-Fugue=a polyphonic work based on a central theme
-vivaldi, bach and handel
-A system of equal tuning was devised so that instruments could play in every key.

40

Program music

instrumental work associated with story, event, or idea

41

The Harmonic series

a series of tones (fundamental pitch and overtones) that occur in nature via any vibrating column of air or vibrating body. It is the basis upon which tonal music is built.