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Flashcards in Atom Deck (73):
1

Anything that takes up space and has mass

Matter

2

Quantity of matter in a body regardless of its volume or any forces acting on it

Mass

3

Measure of the force of gravity acting on it

Weight

4

Building blocks of matter

Atoms

5

Particles much smaller than atoms

Subatomic particles

6

How many elements have been identified ?

112

7

Naturally-occuring elements

92

8

Artificially - produced elements

20

9

He named the smallest piece of matter "atomos"

Democritus

10

Meaning "not to be cut" / indivisible

Atomos

11

They favored the earth, fire , air and water to the nature of matter

Aristotle and Plato

12

Laid the foundation for modern atomic theory

John Dalton (1808)

13

Atoms can't be subdivided , created or destroyed

Modern Atomic Theory

14

Formed by joining of atoms of two or more elements

Compounds

15

Dalton's atom had _________ to account for chemical combination

Hooks and eyes

16

Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole number ratios to form chemical compounds

Law of multiple proportions

17

He is concerned with the investigations of the electrons ( cathode rays)

Joseph John "J J" Thompson

18

Concluded that "electrons were an integral part of all atoms"

JJ Thompson

19

Thomson proposed a model of the atom that is called

Plum Pudding

20

Negatively charged that is also known as electrons

Corpuscles

21

Introduced the nuclear model of the atom

Discovered the nucleus

Ernest Rutherford

22

Proposed the planetary model

Niels Bohr

23

He proposed the wave-particle duality

Louis de Broglie

24

All particles of matter moving at some velocity would have the properties of a wave

Particle- Wave Duality

25

He created the quantum mechanical model of the atom

Erwin Schrodinger

26

The probability of finding the electron is the greatest

The cloud is most dense

27

Nucleus is sorrounded by an electron cloud

This model intoduced the concept of sub- energy levels

Quantum mechanical model

28

Electrons do not move about an atoms in a definite path like the planets around the sun

Wave mechanics theory

29

Atom has small positively charged nucleus surrounded by a large region where there are electrons (negative ) to make the atom neutral

Modern Atomic atomic model

30

Created the quantum mechanics

Werner Heisenberg

31

Diameter of the atom

0.1 - 0.5 nm
1 x 10^-10 m to 5x 10^-10

32

Fundamental particles of the atom

Protons
Neutrons
Electrons

33

Positively charge particle

Proton

34

Mass of proton

1.67 x 10 ^-24 g
1.67 x 10 ^-27 kg

35

Amu of proton

1.007316

36

Discovered proton

Ernest Rutherford (1920)

37

Negative charged particles

Electron

38

Mass of electron

9.1 x 10^-28 g
9.1 x 10^- 31 kg

39

Amu of electron

0.000549

40

Discovered electrons

Joseph John Thompson (1897)

41

Particle with no electrical charge

Neutron

42

Mass of neutron

1.675 x 10 ^ -24 g
1.675 x 10^ - 27 kg

43

Amu of neutron

1.008701

44

Discovered neutron

Sir James Chadwick (1932)

45

Center of an atom

Nucleus

46

Protons and neutrons were collectively known as

Nucleons

47

Determines the chemical element

Number protons

48

Removal of an electron from the atom

Ionization

49

An atom that carries an electrical charge

Ion

50

Positive ion

Cation

51

Negative ion

Anion

52

A cation and anion simultaneously produced

Ion pair

53

To determine the max no of electron per shell

2n^2

54

Shell number n

Principal quantum number

55

Force toward the center

" center -seeking"

Centripetal force

56

Force away from the center

"Center fleeing"

Centrifugal force

57

Strength of an attachment of an electron to the nucleus

Electron Binding Energy (Eb)

58

Combining capacity of an atom of an element

Valency

59

Electrons present in the outmost shell of the atom

Valence electrons

60

List of all the elements that can build matter

Periodic table

61

Arranged the elements according to the number of atomic mass

Dmitri Mendeleev

62

Number of protons in an atom

Atomic number (z)

63

Sum of the protons and neutrons in an atom

Atomic mass ( A)

64

Number of protons is equal to the numebr of the electrons

Neutral atom

65

Atomc species characterized by specific constitution of the nucleus

Nuclide

66

Nuclide is proposed by

Truman P. Kohman

67

Atoms having same element , same protons but different mass

Isotopes

68

Atoms with different element , same number of mass

Isobar

69

Same neutron number , different proton number

Isotones

70

Metastable state of an atomic nucleus cause by excitation

Isomer

71

Usually restricted to refer to isomers with half lives of 10^-9 seconds or longer

Metastable state

72

Atoms of various elements may combine to form structure

Molecules

73

Composed of two or more chemical elements

Chemical compound