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Flashcards in atomic structure Deck (35)
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1

what is the radius of an atom?

1x10(-10) metres

2

what does an atom contain?

An atom contains:
-positive nucleus which is made up of protons and neutrons
-> it is surrounded by negatively charged electrons

3

what is the protons electrical charge?

a protons electrical charge is:
+1

4

what is an electrons electrical charge?

an electrons electrical charge is:
-1

5

why does an atom have no overall electrical charge?

Atoms have no overall electrical charge because they have equal numbers of electrons and protons

6

what is most of the atoms mass?

nucleus

7

what is the nucleus radius of an atom?

1
———
1000

8

If an atom loses one outer electron, what does it become?

positive ion

9

If an atom gains one extra electron, what does it become?

negative ion

10

all atoms of a particular element have the same number of....

protons

11

what is the atomic number?

The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom of an element

12

what is the mass number?

the mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in an atom

13

isotopes

isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different number of neutrons

14

isotopes have

-same number of proton
-different number of neutron

15

what would happen if the proton number changed?

they would be a different element

16

what were atoms thought as?

people thought that atoms were unable to split

17

what was the plum pudding model?

The plum pudding model was a model of negative electrons in positive charge
-positives would cancel out negatives

18

what happens if an atomic nuclei is unstable?

if an atomic nuclei is unstable they give out radiation in order to become more stable

19

what does the type of radiation depend on?

The type of radiation emitted depends on why the nucleus is on stable

20

what are the 3 types of nuclear radiation?

-alpha
-beta
-gamma

21

what is the most ionising radiation?

alpha

22

what is the least ionising?

gamma

23

alpha

-2 neutrons, 2 protons
-ejected from nucleus
-likely to be absorbed
-cause damage if passing through living cells

24

beta

-high speed electron
-ejected from nucleus as neutron which turns into a proton
-likely to cause damage if absorbed my living cells
-can penetrate the body to inner organs

25

gamma

-electromagnetic radiation
-emitted from the nucleus
-pass through living cells without being absorbed causing ionisation

26

what is radioactive contamination?

radioactive contamination is the unwanted presence of materials containing radioactive atoms on other materials.

27

what is irradiation?

irradiation:
- process of Exposing an object to nuclear radiation
- can be deliberate or accidental
- does not cause object to become radioactive

28

how can you protect against unwanted irradiation?

-Using sources of the lowest activity possible for the shortest amount of time
-wearing appropriate protective clothing such as lead apron
-not handling sources with bare hands

29

contaminated object:

Continues to give out radiation until decontaminated

30

irradiated object:

does not become radioactive