Atomic Structure and Periodic Table Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Atomic Structure and Periodic Table Deck (30)
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1

What is the relative mass and charge of a proton?

relative mass 1
charge +1

2

What is the relative mass and charge of a neutron?

relative mass 1
charge 0

3

What is the relative mass and charge of an electron?

relative mass 1/2000
charge -1

4

Why are atoms neutral?

They contain the same number of protons and electrons
Charges are the same size but opposite so cancel eachother out

5

What does the atomic number show?

how many protons there are

6

What does the atomic mass number show?

the total number of protons and neutrons

7

What is an element?

Substance containing atoms with the same number of protons (and therefore only one type of atom)

8

What are isotopes?

Different forms of the same element, which have the same number of protons but a different number of neutrons.

9

What is a compound?

Substances formed from two or more elements with the atoms at fixed proportions throughout the compound that are held together by chemical bonds,

10

What is a mixture?

A group of elements and/or compounds not chemically bonded together that can easily be separated.

11

Explain the method of chromotography

-draw pencil line near bottom of filter paper
-add a spot of ink on the line
-put the sheet of filter paper in the solvent (eg. water) so that the water is bellow the ink
-the solvent will seep up the paper, moving the ink with it
-different inks will move to different points on the filter paper
-leave to dry
-the results are called a chromatogram

12

What method is used to separate insoluble solids from liquids?

Filtration

13

What methods can be used to separate soluble solids from solutions?

Evaporation
or
Crystallisation

14

What method is used to separate solutions?

Distillation

15

What did John Dalton discover (about the atom)?

Atoms are solid spheres.
Different spheres make different elements

16

What did J J Thomson discover (about the atom)?

Atoms aren't solid spheres.
Atoms have smaller negatively charged particles called electrons.
This made the plum pudding model.

17

What did Rutherford (and Marsden) discover (about the atom)?

Conducted alpha particle scattering experiments. They expected the alpha particles to all pass straight through the sheet of gold but not all if the particles went straight through, some deflected more than they expected and some deflected backwards.
He then made the nuclear model. In this model, there was a positively charged nucleus in the center of the atom and some electrons in a cloud around it. The rest of the atom was empty space.

18

What did Bohr discover (about the atom)?

Bohr changed the nuclear model so that the electrons orbit the nucleus in fixed shells.

19

What was the original periodic table like?

It was ordered by relative atomic mass, after this they noticed there was a pattern in the properties of elements.
Gaps were left in the periodic table for undiscovered elements and to help scientists predict what elements would be like.

20

How is the current periodic table laid out?

In order of increasing atomic number meaning there are repeating properties of elements and means metals are on the left and non metals are on the right.

21

What physical properties do all metals have?

strong
malleable
good conductors (of heat and electricity)
have high melting and boiling points

22

What properties do the transition metals have?

can make more than one ion
often coloured (make colourful compounds)
good catalysts
(and typical properties of metals)

23

What properties do group 1 elements have?

-soft
-low density
-have one electron in outer shell

24

What do the alkali metals produce when they react with water?

hydrogen gas and metal oxides

25

What do the alkali metals produce when they react with chlorine?

metal chloride salts

26

What do the alkali metals produce when they react with oxygen?

metal oxide

27

How do group 1 (alklali) metals change as you go down the group?

-reactivity increases
-lower melting and boiling points
-higher relative atomic mass

28

How do group 7 (halogens) elements change as you go down the group?

-reactivity decreases
-higher melting and boiling points
-higher relative atomic mass

29

What are the properties of group 0 (noble gases) elements?

-unreactive (already have a full outer shell)
-exist as monatomic gases
-colourless
-non flammable

30

How do group 0 (noble gases) elements change as you go down the group?

-boiling points increase (increase in number of electrons leading to greater inter molecular forces that need lots of energy to be overcome)