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Flashcards in Atomic structures Deck (54):
1

What is a mixture?

When two or more elements or compounds are mixed together but aren't chemically bonded

2

What is an element?

A pure substance made up of only one type of atom

3

What is a compound?

A substance that is made up of two or more atoms which are chemically bonded together

4

What does soluble means?

When something can dissolve

5

What does insoluble mean?

When something is unable to dissolve

6

Name the subatomic particles

Electron
Proton
Neutron

7

What does the mass tell us?

Protons+ neutrons

8

What does the atomic number tell us?

Protons which is the same as electrons

9

What is periodic table arranged in?

Atomic number (protons)

10

What is an isotope?

A version of the same element but with a different number of neutrons

11

What is the relative mass of a proton?

1

12

What is the relative mass of a electron?

Very small

13

What is the relative mass of a neutron?

1

14

What is the electric charge of a proton?

+1

15

What is the electric charge of a electron?

-1

16

What is the electric charge of a neutron?

0

17

When did Mendeleev organise the periodic table?

1869

18

What did Mendeleev organise the periodic table according to?

To the element's atomic mass

19

How did Mendeleev group the elements?

Corresponding to their chemical properties

20

Why did Mendeleev place the alkaline metals in one group together?

Because they had similar properties

21

Why are transition metals placed between groups 2 and 3?

Because they have a similar number of electrons in their third shell

22

Why did Mendeleev leave gaps?

For missing elements

23

How created the table we use today?

Henry Mosely

24

When did Henry Mosely produce the table we use today?

1914

25

How did Mosely organise the elements?

According to their atomic number

26

What did Mosely add to the table?

The noble gases

27

Who first organised the periodic table according to their atomic mass?

John Newland

28

When was the electron discovered and who by?

J.J Thompson and in 1897

29

What did J.J Thompson create?

The plum pudding model- he imagined the atom was positively charged with electrons stuck in it

30

Who tested J.J Thompson's theory and when?

1991 Rutherford

31

How did Rutherford test Thompson's theory?

He fired particles at atoms however some bounced off funny not centred

32

When was the proton and neutron discovered and by who?

By Chadwick in 1932

33

What reaction would take place with the hot tungsten was surrounded by air?

It would react with oxygen and burn out

34

What is Rn used for?

Radiotherapy

35

What is Kr and Xe used for?

Lasers

36

What are metals?

They losers because they want to react to achieve a full outer shell so they have to give away their electrons

37

Name some properties of a metal

Good conductor of heat and electricity
High density
Strong
solid

38

Name some properties of a non metal

Poor conductor of heat and electricity
Low density
Soft
Solid, liquid or gas

39

What elements are the halogens?

Chlorine, fluorine, bromine, iodine and astatine

40

What metals do the halogens react with ?

Alkali metals to form halide ions with a charge of -1

41

What happens when you go down group 7?

The reactivity decreases

42

Why does the reactivity of group 7 decrease as you go down?

As you go down the group you gain shells and for non metals to react they need to gain electrons. So it is harder to gain electrons because it is further away from the nucleus

43

What happens when you go down group 1?

The reactivity increases

44

Why does the reactivity of group 1 increase as you go down?

Because for metals to gain a full outer shell they lose electrons so when you go down the group the number of shells increase so the nucleus attraction is weaker. So it is easier to lose electrons

45

What are the key properties of the alkali metals?

Low density
Soft
Float

46

What do alkali metals react with?

Oxygen and hydrogen to form a hydroxide

47

What is displacement?

When a more reactive metal displaces a less reactive metal

48

What is oxidation?

Loss of electrons

49

What is reduction?

Gain of electrons

50

Acid + metal equals

Soluble salt + hydrogen

51

What type of ion does all acids contain?

Hydrogen ions

52

What happens when acids are dissolved in water?

They fully ionise to release H+ ions into a solution, making it strong

53

Insoluble base (oxide) + acid equals

Soluble salt + water

54

Insoluble salt (carbonate) + acid equals

Soluble salt + water + carbon dioxide