Flashcards in Bonding, Structure and Property Matter Deck (70):
What is crude oil?
What are hydrocarbons?
Hydrogen and carbon compounds
What is the general formula for alkanes?
What is the formula for alkenes?
What type of bond does alkanes have?
What type of bonds do alkenes have?
What is fractional distillation?
Because they have different boiling points, the substances in crude oil can be separated using fractional distillation. The crude oil is evaporated and its vapours allowed to condense at different temperatures in the fractionating column
How is the fractional distillation columns arranged?
Short chain lengths at the top and long at the bottom
What is the boiling point of small molecules?
Low because they need less energy to be broken down by
What is the boiling point of large molecules?
High because they need more energy to be broken down by
What is the viscosity of small molecules?
What is the viscosity of large molecules?
What is the flammability of small molecules?
Very flammable because there is less bonds to break
What is the flammability of large molecules?
Flammable because they have more bonds to break
What is cracking?
When long hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller hydrocarbons
What do you need to perform cracking?
What are the fractions of crude oil?
Natural gas- cooking gas
Diesel- vans and cars
Fuel oil- ships
What is combustion?
When fuel a fuel reacts with oxygen
Fuel + oxygen equals
Carbon dioxide + water
How does the greenhouse effect occur?
Suns rays enter the earth's atmosphere and heats the earth's surface.
Infared radiation is absorbed by the greenhouse gases.
What causes global dimming?
Caused by air pollution which is caused by burning coal or wood.
What causes acid rain?
Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide
Why are scientists worried about the impact of global dimming?
Since it is shielding the oceans from the full power of the sun s they think it may be disrupting the world's rainfall
What is photochemical smog?
Air pollution caused by reactants between sunlight and pollutants such as hydrocarbons
What is global dimming?
When the sun's rays can't reach the earth's surface and are reflected back into space by greenhouse gases
What is ionic bonding?
Oppositely charged ions held together by electrostatic attraction
What is ionic bonds made up of?
A metal and a non metal
What is covalent bonding?
Atoms that share a pair of electrons
What is covalent bonds made up of?
What is an ion?
An atom with a charge
What are ionic bonds arranged into?
A lattice structure
What are ionic bonds held together by?
Why can ionic bonds not conduct electricity when in a solid?
Since ions are in a fixed lattice so they cannot move so ions cannot carry charge
What is the appearance of an ionic compound?
Usually white solids
Are ionic compounds easily dissolved?
Yes to form aqueous solutions
When can an ionic compound conduct electricity?
When it is molten or dissolved since the ions are free to move so they can carry charge
What type of melting and boiling points does ionic compounds have?
They are high this means they are solids at room temperature
What does it mean if they have a high boiling and melting point?
They require a lot of energy to break their strong forces of electrostatic attraction. also they are in a lattice formation so there is many bonds
What is silicon dioxide made from?
Silicon and oxygen
What is silicon dioxide commonly known as?
Why does it take a lot of energy to break SiO2 bonds?
Because it has very strong bonds
What is diamond made from?
How many bonds does diamond have?
Why does diamond need a lot of energy to break its bonds?
As it has very strong bonds
What type of melting point does diamond have?
What is diamond used for?
Drill bits and jewellery
What is graphite made from?
How many bonds does graphite have?
How is graphite arranged?
Why is graphite soft?
As it has sliding layers
Why does graphite conduct electricity?
Because of its delocalised electron
What is graphite used for?
What type of forces does graphite have?
Weak intermolecular forces
Why is graphene similar to graphite?
Because it can conduct electricity
How does graphene conduct electricity?
Through its delocalised electron
Why does graphene have very strong bonds?
Due to its strong intermolecular forces
Why are carbon nanotubes similar to graphene?
Because they can conduct electricity
What is carbon nanotubes used for and why?
Building materials because its lightweight
What is Buckminster fullerene made from?
Why is it hollow in the centre?
To hold drugs
What are the four alkenes?
How do you make alkenes saturated?
What is hydrogenation?
Changing double bonded carbon to single bonded carbon by adding more hydrogen. This done through temperatures of 60degrees and a catalyst.
What happens in combustion of alkenes?
Burns with a smokier yellow flame and releases less energy per mole as it can result in incomplete combustion
What is the equation for incomplete combustion?
C2H4 + 3O3 --------> 2CO2 + 2H2O
How many carbons does methane have?
How many carbons does ethene have?
How many carbons does propene have?
How many carbons does butene have?