Bonding, Structure and Property Matter Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bonding, Structure and Property Matter Deck (60):
1

What is crude oil?

Unrefined oil

2

What are hydrocarbons?

Hydrogen and carbon compounds

3

What is the general formula for alkanes?

CnH2n+2

4

What is the formula for alkenes?

CnH2n

5

What type of bond does alkanes have?

Single- saturated

6

What type of bonds do alkenes have?

Double- unsaturated

7

What is fractional distillation?

Because they have different boiling points, the substances in crude oil can be separated using fractional distillation. The crude oil is evaporated and its vapours allowed to condense at different temperatures in the fractionating column

8

How is the fractional distillation columns arranged?

Short chain lengths at the top and long at the bottom

9

What is the boiling point of small molecules?

Low because they need less energy to be broken down by

10

What is the boiling point of large molecules?

High because they need more energy to be broken down by

11

What is the viscosity of small molecules?

Thin

12

What is the viscosity of large molecules?

Thick

13

What is the flammability of small molecules?

Very flammable because there is less bonds to break

14

What is the flammability of large molecules?

Flammable because they have more bonds to break

15

What is cracking?

When long hydrocarbons are broken down into smaller hydrocarbons

16

What do you need to perform cracking?

High temperature
Catalyst

17

What are the fractions of crude oil?

Natural gas- cooking gas
Propane- caravans
Petrol- cars
Diesel- vans and cars
Kerosene- aeroplane
Fuel oil- ships
Bitumen- tarmac

18

What is combustion?

When fuel a fuel reacts with oxygen

19

Fuel + oxygen equals

Carbon dioxide + water

20

How does the greenhouse effect occur?

Suns rays enter the earth's atmosphere and heats the earth's surface.
Infared radiation is absorbed by the greenhouse gases.

21

What causes global dimming?

Caused by air pollution which is caused by burning coal or wood.

22

What causes acid rain?

Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxide

23

Why are scientists worried about the impact of global dimming?

Since it is shielding the oceans from the full power of the sun s they think it may be disrupting the world's rainfall

24

What is photochemical smog?

Air pollution caused by reactants between sunlight and pollutants such as hydrocarbons

25

What is global dimming?

When the sun's rays can't reach the earth's surface and are reflected back into space by greenhouse gases

26

What is ionic bonding?

Oppositely charged ions held together by electrostatic attraction

27

What is ionic bonds made up of?

A metal and a non metal

28

What is covalent bonding?

Atoms that share a pair of electrons

29

What is covalent bonds made up of?

Non metals

30

What is an ion?

An atom with a charge

31

What are ionic bonds arranged into?

A lattice structure

32

What are ionic bonds held together by?

Electrostatic attraction

33

Why can ionic bonds not conduct electricity when in a solid?

Since ions are in a fixed lattice so they cannot move so ions cannot carry charge

34

What is the appearance of an ionic compound?

Usually white solids

35

Are ionic compounds easily dissolved?

Yes to form aqueous solutions

36

When can an ionic compound conduct electricity?

When it is molten or dissolved since the ions are free to move so they can carry charge

37

What type of melting and boiling points does ionic compounds have?

They are high this means they are solids at room temperature

38

What does it mean if they have a high boiling and melting point?

They require a lot of energy to break their strong forces of electrostatic attraction. also they are in a lattice formation so there is many bonds

39

What is silicon dioxide made from?

SiO2
Silicon and oxygen

40

What is silicon dioxide commonly known as?

Glass

41

Why does it take a lot of energy to break SiO2 bonds?

Because it has very strong bonds

42

What is diamond made from?

Carbon

43

How many bonds does diamond have?

4

44

Why does diamond need a lot of energy to break its bonds?

As it has very strong bonds

45

What type of melting point does diamond have?

High

46

What is diamond used for?

Drill bits and jewellery

47

What is graphite made from?

Carbon

48

How many bonds does graphite have?

3

49

How is graphite arranged?

In sheets

50

Why is graphite soft?

As it has sliding layers

51

Why does graphite conduct electricity?

Because of its delocalised electron

52

What is graphite used for?

Lubricant

53

What type of forces does graphite have?

Weak intermolecular forces

54

Why is graphene similar to graphite?

Because it can conduct electricity

55

How does graphene conduct electricity?

Through its delocalised electron

56

Why does graphene have very strong bonds?

Due to its strong intermolecular forces

57

Why are carbon nanotubes similar to graphene?

Because they can conduct electricity

58

What is carbon nanotubes used for and why?

Building materials because its lightweight

59

What is Buckminster fullerene made from?

Carbon

60

Why is it hollow in the centre?

To hold drugs