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Flashcards in Atomic Theory Deck (23):

Sublimination is...

Solid to gas


Absorption of energy is a rise or drop in energy levels?

A rise, like from n=1 to n=2


Emission of energy is a rise or drop in energy levels?

A drop, like from n=2 to n=1


As the n value increase, does the energy between adjacent energy levels increase or decrease?

Decrease, there is more change in energy between n=1 and n=2 than between n=2 and n=3


As n value increases, does the electron go into higher or lower energy states?

Higher because the electron is farther from the nucleus


How do you know that energy levels are quantized?

The sample emits light of the same frequency, regardless of solution's temperature and concentration. Because the sample, independent of concentration, absorbs the same frequency of light each time, the transition energy must be a fixed value. This leads to the conclusion that energy levels are fixed, and thus quantized. Temperature can affect the intensity of the light that is emitted, but not the frequency. The frequency of the light remains constant.


What is m(l) of p orbital? Like what values

m(l) = -1, 0, +1


Having six ligands attached to a atom usually leads to what shape?



Having five ligands attached to a atom usually leads to what shape?

Trigonal bipyramidal


Is the cis or trans isomer usually polar?

Cis is usually always polar
Trans can cancel out dipole


If a semipermeable membrane can distinguish between atomic radius and charge, which molecules would be let through more easily?

Small, non-charged molecules/atoms


What is ionization energy?

energy required to remove an electron from its valence shell


What is effective nuclear charge?

the charge exerted upon the valence electrons by all other charged species in the atom, usually a larger effective nuclear charge leads to smaller atomic radius and higher ionization energy


For transition metals, do they lose electrons from 4s first or from 3d first?

4s because 4s is farther from the nucleus than 3d


As temperature increases, what happens to density of a solid?

Density decreases because while mass stays the same, volume increases due to expansion


Why do inorganic pigments last longer than organic ones?

Organic pigments can be oxidized in the air while inorganic pigments are already oxidized and will probably be stable in the air for a while


How does fluorescing compounds work?

It absorbs high energy light like UV and gives off less energy light like visible light


How is the color emitted from fluorescence found?

Find the energy difference between excited and ground state to find the frequency and therefore wavelength of color.


Do first row transition metals lose 4s or 3d electrons first?



What does an emission spectrum look like?

An emission spectrum shows just the color emitted by the compound after it has been excited. This is shown on a black background.


What is an exothermic reaction?

more energy is released than expected


How do you know electrons have quantized energy levels?

"Quantized energy levels" refer to states of finite energy where electrons may exist. Distinct lines in an EM radiation spectra show that the same amount of energy is absorbed when an electron is excited. If the transition between levels is a quantized value (an exact quantity), then it seems logical that the energy levels are also quantized.


What does electron configuration of an excited state for an atom look like?

Electron moves to higher energy level orbital.

Ex. Excited state for Na+
1s^2 2s^2 2p^5 3s^1 (the electron from 2p moved to 3s)