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Flashcards in Atoms and Radiation Deck (30):
1

What are ISOTOPES?

Different forms of the same element.
Same proton number but different number of neutrons.

2

Isotopes have the same?

Atomic number.

3

Isotopes have different?

Mass numbers.

4

What is the atomic number?

Number of protons in an atom.

5

What is the mass number?

Total number of protons and neutrons in an atom.

6

Most elements have...

Different isotopes.
Usually only 1 or 2 stable ones.

7

What are the other isotopes called?

Radioactive.

8

What do the radioactive isotopes do?

Decay into other elements.
Give out radiation.

9

Radioactive substances give out what? and where from?

Give out radiation.
From nuclei of their atoms.

10

The process of radioactivity is what?

Totally random.

11

What is radioactivity not affected by?

Physical conditions.
Temperature.
Chemical bonding.

12

Radioactive substances spit out one or more of the three types of radiation.
Name the 3.

Alpha.
Beta.
Gamma.

13

What is background radiation?

Radiation that is present at all times.
All around us, wherever we go.

14

Background radiation comes from what 3 things?

Radioactivity of naturally occurring unstable isotopes.
Radiation from space.
Radiation due to man-made sources.

15

Where are unstable isotopes all around us?

Air.
Food.
Building materials.
Rocks under our feet.

16

What is radiation from space known as?

Cosmic rays.

17

Where do cosmic rays mostly come from?

The sun.

18

Name 2 ways radiation is due to man-made sources?

Nuclear accidents.
Dumped nuclear waste.

19

What does the radiation dose depend on?

Location.
Occupation.
Type of radiation.
Amount of radiation.

20

The higher the radiation...

More risk of developing cancer.

21

Certain underground rocks can cause higher levels at the surface especially if they release...

Radioactive radon gas.

22

Where does radon gas tend to get trapped in?

people's houses.

23

At high altitudes, background radiation increases why is this?

More exposure to cosmic rays.

24

Commercial pilots have an...

Increased risk of getting cancer.

25

Underground it increases because of what...

Rocks all round.
Posing risk to miners.

26

Nuclear industry workers and uranium workers are how many times exposed to normal radiation?

10 times.

27

What do people wear to stop touching and inhaling radioactive material?

Protective clothing.
Face masks.

28

How do people monitor their radiation doses?

Special radiation badges.
Regular check-ups.

29

What do radiographers do?

Work in hospitals using ionising radiation.
Higher risk of radiation exposure.

30

What do radiographers wear?

Lead aprons.
Stand behind lead screens.
Protect themselves from prolonged exposure.