Atoms, Ions, Compounds Flashcards Preview

Chem 103 Equivalent > Atoms, Ions, Compounds > Flashcards

Flashcards in Atoms, Ions, Compounds Deck (32)
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1

Matter

Anything that can be physically touched.

2

Atom

A fundamental piece of matter. Everything in the universe, except energy, is made of matter, and therefore atoms.

3

Absolute value

the distance from 0 on the number line

4

Avogadro's Number

6.022 * 10^23

5

10^0

= 1 (No zeros)

6

10^2

= 100 (2 zeros)

7

10^1

= 10 (1 zero)

8

Write .000007 in scientific notation

= 7 x 10^-6

9

12,385^0

= 1 (any number to the power of 0 = 1)

10

Atomic Number is determined by ...

the number of protons.

11

mass of a proton...

~ 1 u (1.008)

12

mass of a neutron...

~ 1 u (1.007)

13

mass of an electron...

negligible

14

Average Atomic Mass

Average mass of isotopes of the atom, relative to their proportion in the universe.

15

Purpose of using moles and Avogadro's Number?

Useful in translating atomic numbers to the world at our scale (often grams)

16

Mass Number
vs. Atomic Mass
vs. Average Atomic Mass

MASS NUMBER = P + N and will always be whole numbers relative to the rest of the periodic table. Listed in superscript to the upper left of element in isotopic notation.
ATOMIC MASS UNITS (AMU), is now used interchangeably with Unified Atomic Mass Unit (u).
AVERAGE ATOMIC MASS (also called Atomic Weight) is the average of each isotope relative to abundance.

17

Convert AMU to Kg

The mass of an element or molecule in atomic mass units is equal to the mass of a mole of the same particles in grams. Divide the number by 1,000 to get the molar mass in kilograms.

18

Ion

An atom or molecule with a net electric charge due to the loss or gain of one or more electrons.

19

cation

A positively charged ion (ie. an atom or molecule with a positive charge)

20

anion

A negatively charged ion (ie. an atom or molecule with a negative charge)

21

compound

a distinct group of atoms held together by chemical bonds

22

ionic bond

a chemical bond where electrons are fully transferred between two atoms so that ions are formed

23

covalent bond

a chemical bond where two atoms share a pair of electrons

24

empirical formula

One of 4 ways to represent a molecule; conveys the ratio of the elements in the molecule.
(other 3 are (1) name, (2) molecular formula, and (3) structural formula)

25

molecular formula

One of 4 ways to represent a molecule; shows the number of each atom within the molecule; will be the same ratio as empirical formula.
(other 3 are (1) name, (2) empirical formula, and (3) structural formula)

26

structural formula

One of 4 ways to represent a molecule; gives 3D information of how the atoms relate and bond to one-another.
(other 3 are (1) name, (2) molecular formula, and (3) empirical formula)

27

isotope

Atoms of a single element (same atomic #, or # of protons) that differ in the number of neutrons in the nuclei. Therefore, isotopes of the same element have different masses.

28

determine the relative abundance of each isotope of an atom using...

mass spectrometry /
a mass spectrometer

29

a mass spectrometer works by...

ionizing atoms and molecules with a high-energy electron beam, then deflecting the ions through a magnetic field based on their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios.
i.e. The device knocks off e- and deflects ions. The amount that each ion is deflected will depend on its speed and charge. Amount deflected is inversely proportional to its mass-to-charge ratio (m/z).
If z = 1 (charge = 1) for all ions, then the x-axis can be expressed in units of atomic mass; more ions deflected = more abundant.

30

ionizing

giving a charge (negative or positive) to an atom