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Flashcards in ATP Deck (34)
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1
Q

Why do organisms need energy

A
Metabolism
Movement
Active transport
Maintenance, repair and division of cell
Production of substances
Maintain body temperature
2
Q

What is ATP

A

An energy transfer molecule

3
Q

What is the structure of ATP

A

Bonds unstable and easily broken
Addition of water breaks bonds
Hydrolysis of bonds release energy

4
Q

Why is ATP perfect

A

Small so easily moves around and can’t leave cell
Energy is released in quick single hydrolysis step
Small amount of energy released so not wasteful
Unstable (readily gives up phosphate) so immediate energy source

5
Q

Name the stages of ATP production in order

A

Glycolysis
Link
Krebs cycle
ETC (electron transport chain)

6
Q

How many ATPs are made from one molecule of glucose

A

38

7
Q

What type of metabolic reaction is respiration

A

Catabolic

8
Q

Where does glycolysis happen

A

Cytoplasm

9
Q

Where does ATP production happen

A

Cytoplasm

Then mostly in the mitochondria specifically the matrix

10
Q

Name the stages of glycolysis

A
Cytoplasm
Anaerobic
Energy investment of ATP
Glucose is split
Oxidation of glucose starts
Net production 2 ATP
End product = 2 pyruvate
No water or carbon loss
11
Q

What is substance level phosphorylation

A

Where the substrate gives the phosphate to ADP which becomes ATP

Occurs in glycolysis

12
Q

What does the link stage start with

A

2 pyruvate with 3 carbons

13
Q

What does the link stage end with

A

2C Acetyl coenzyme A

14
Q

What happens during the link stage

A
Pyruvate active transported into matrix
Pyruvate oxidised (hydrogen removed)
Hydrogen accepted by NAD to form NADH
2 carbon molecule combines with coenzyme A = 2C Acetyl coenzyme A
2 CO2 formed from the 2 pyruvate
15
Q

What happens to the 2 carbon fragment of pyruvate during the link stage

A

The 2 carbon fragment combines with coenzyme A to become 2C Acetyl coenzyme A

16
Q

How many NADH is involved in gycolysis and what happens with them

A

2 NADH

NAD is oxidised state collects hydrogen from glucose and becomes reduced to NADH

17
Q

How many ATP is made in the glycolysis stage

A

4
But used 2
So net production of 2

18
Q

How many ATP are made in link stage

A

0

19
Q

How many NADH are made in link stage

A

2

NAD collects hydrogen from pyruvate

20
Q

Where does the Krebs cycle take place

A

In the matrix

21
Q

Where does substrate level phosphorylation occur

A

In glycolysis and the Krebs cycle

22
Q

What is made and lost by the end of the Krebs cycle

A

2 ATP made
4 CO2 lost
6 NADH made
2 FADH2 made

23
Q

Explain how the amount of ATP is increased by reactions occurring inside the mitochondria

A
Oxidation of pyruvate
Substrate level production of ATP
NAD reduced to NADH
Electrons fed into ETC
inner membrane
Linked to ATP production
ATP synthase enzyme
Electrons lose energy as they're passed along the chain
24
Q

At the end of ETC how many ATP is made and where does the extra come from

A

34

Extra 4 when 2xs FADH makes 4 ATP

25
Q

How many ATPs can every molecule of NADH make

A

3

26
Q

How many NADH are produced in ETC

A

10

So able to produce 30 ATP

27
Q

What is the name of the enzyme at the end of ETC

A

ATP synthase

28
Q

What is the role of NADH dehydrogenase comple in ETC

A

Takes away hydrogen from NADH

This then releases protons from the hydrogen atoms

29
Q

Why is energy lost from the electrons as they pass along the ETC

A

Energy is used to combine ADP + phosphate to make ATP

Some energy also released as heat

30
Q

Where do protons go

A

They’re actively transported across the inner membrane space

31
Q

How is a gradient created

A

The active transport of protons across the inner membrane space

32
Q

How are electrons transported across ETC

A

Transported by carrier molecules in a series of oxidation-reduction reactions

33
Q

what happens at the end of the chain

A

Electrons combine with protons and oxygen to form water

34
Q

What is involved in the Krebs cycle

A

A series of oxidation-reduction reactions