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Flashcards in Attachment Deck (31):

Failure to form attachments

1) Rutter
2) Tizard and hodges


Explanations of attachments

1) Learning theory - classical and operant conditioning
2) Bowlbys monotopic theory ICCM


Effects of institutionalisation

1) Rutter
2) Tizard and hodges


Ainsworth & 1 other

1) Stange situation - observing children 9-16 months to study attachment in controlled conditions, how they behave with carer, with stranger, on reunion (3 types of attachment)
2) Vanijezdoorn and Kroonenberg


Discuss bowlbys maternal deprivation theory

1) disruptions with mother has serious negative effects
-emotional problems
-personality problems
-intellectual problems
-relationship problems
-poor physical development

2) DOESNT SUPPORT - robertson&robertson


Cultural variations in attachment

1) Vanijezdoorn and Kroonenberg
2) Takahashi


Influence of childhood attachments on adult relationships

1) Hazan and Shaver
2) DOESNT SUPPORT - zimmerman



165 Romanian children in an institution, 1-2 weeks old, poor physical and emotional care
Compared to control group of 52 UK children assessed at 4,6,11 on cognitive, social, emotional and physical functioning
RESULTS - stunted growth, underweight -physical neglect?


Tizard and Hodges

65 children in home from 4 months old, staff turnover high so couldn't form stable attachments
Compared to control group who lived with own family, assessed at 8,16
:( by 16 35% dropped out ATTRITION
RESULTS - attachment to adoptive mother 95%
attachment to biological mother - 46%


Learning theory

Classical conditioning - child associates parent with pleasure of being fed, it's a conditioned emotional response and child will gradually learn to be attached
Milk (UCS) < Pleasure (UCR)
Mum (NS) + Milk (UCS) > Pleasure (UCR)
Mum (CS) > Pleasure (CR)

Operant conditioning
Food is the primary reinforcer and person who usually feeds the baby is a secondary reinforcer so this person is a reward even when the baby isn't being fed and seeks out this person and wants them to be closer, e.g smiling strengthening the bond


Bowlbys monotropic theory

I - Lorenz
C - 2 and a half years after this, attachment is less likely
C - hazan and shaver
M - shaffer and emerson 87% had multiple attachments by 18 months


Ainsworth & Bell

Observing children 9-16 months in controlled conditions, 3 situations, 3 types of attachment
RESULTS - 66% secure 22% resistant 12% avoidant


Vanijezdoorn and Kroonenberg

32 studies in 8 countries including USA Germany and China data from nearly 2000 children
GB 75% secure China 50% secure
Japan 5% avoidant Germany 35% avoidant


Robertson & Robertson

Detailed filming of 5 children who needed residential care for several weeks whilst mum in hospital - showed distress but functioned well and didn't reject mother on reunion
5th child John put in residential nursery for 9 days, nurses caring but busy, cried lots refused food and drink struggled and shouted when mum came
- suggests negative effects of short term separation from the mother are not inevitable



Same method as Ainsworh&Bell
60 m/c Japanese infants all 1 and raised at home
68% secure 0% avoidant 32% resistant
Rude to ignore, rarely left alone sleep with parents until 2


Hazan & Shaver

Love quiz, respond to article in poet about relationships (200 men 400 women)
-attitudes to love assessed to get measure of how positive/negative their IWM were
-childhood assessed by completing a checklist about their childhood relationship with parents
-current assessed by asking which description fitted their current relationship
RESULTS positive correlation between attachment type in childhood and adult relationships



Assessed attachment types of 44 children using strange situation
Followed up at 16 years and interviewed quality of relationships and any significant event e.g divorce
- Quality of relationships at 16 was more related to later life events than early attachment types


Define attachment

A close emotional relationship between two persons characterised by mutual affection and a desire to maintain proximity


How do we know if a baby has developed an attachment

Separation distress
Proximity seeking
Stranger anxiety



When babies and careers mutually respond to each other's behaviour as if they are 'taking turns' e.g baby cries so parent responds by picking it up


Interactional synchrony

Detailed mimicry and mirroring between carer and baby which forms the early basis of communication e.g copying facial expressions


Schaffer & Emerson - stages of attachment

Pre - little difference in response to humans compared to objects
Indiscriminate - little difference in response to stranger to familiar carer
Discriminate - shows clear attachment to one or two people
Multiple - baby begins to show clear attachments to other people


Types of attachment - ainsworth

Secure - explores rooms using carer as safe base, moderate distress, moderate stranger anxiety, easily comforted
Avoidant - explores room with little interaction with carer, little distress, low stranger anxiety, doesn't notice carer on reunion
Resistant - doesn't explore, severe distress, high stranger anxiety, hard to comfort on reunion


Define internal working models

Mental representations of the world and relationship s which influence how we feel and behave



Clutch of gosling eggs, half hatched with mum half with Lorenz, all put together with Lorenz and mother present, goslings followed him if he was first thing they saw. Imprinting occurs between 4-25 hours of hatching (critical period)


Harlow & Zimmerman

16 newborn monkeys separated from mother at birth and reared in isolation, grew up with wire mother that had food and soft mother with no food. Significantly more time spent with soft mother, if monkey was scared it would run to soft mother, if only food mother was there it would cower in the cage


Define privation

When a child has been prevented from forming any types of attachment in their early year


Define institutional care

Residential 24hour care in an orphanage, children's home or other unit with other children and paid members of staff


Define institutionalisation

The adverse/negative effects on children of being placed in an institution- cognitive, emotional and social development


Bowlbys 3 phases of distress

Protest - crying,struggling,clinging
Despair - stops struggling, not engaging with others, can't be comforted
Detachment - child starts to respond to others in a superficial way rather than unemotional, parent may be rejected on reunion


Definite disinhibition attachment

Where a child shows little fear of strangers and will run up to them and demand attention from them and get upset when the stranger leaves