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Flashcards in Australian Immunisation Deck (16):
1

Which vaccinations in the primary childhood vaccination schedule are to be given subcutaneously?

MMR, varicella and IPV (when by itself)

2

What vaccinations are indicated at birth

Hepatitis B

3

Following the Australian primary childhood vaccination schedule, which vaccinations should be given at 2,4 & 6 months?

HepB-DTPa-Hib-IPV
Rotavirus
Pneumococcus

4

Following the Australian primary childhood vaccination schedule, which vaccinations should be given at 12 months?

Meningococcal C
Hib
MMR

5

Following the Australian primary childhood vaccination schedule, which vaccinations should be given at 18 months

MMRV
(measles, mumps, rubella and varicella)

6

Following the Australian primary childhood vaccination schedule, which vaccinations should be given at 4 years

DTPa-IPV
MMR (only until the end of 2015, as wouldn't have had MMRV at 18m)

7

Differences in vaccination scheduling if premature

Premature infants should be vaccinated according to the schedule, correction for prematurity is not required provided they are well.
However, may not mount a sufficient response to Hep B, and will require an additional booster at 12 m

8

Different types of vaccines available

Live attenuated vaccines
Inactivated vaccines
Subunit vaccines
Toxoid vaccines
Conjugate vaccines

9

What is a conjugate vaccine (definition + example)

A vaccine made from covalent bond between polysaccharide of bacterial cell wall and a protein antigen. Improves the immune response to the vaccine
e.g. Hib

10

What is a toxoid vaccine (definition + example)

A toxin secreted from a bacteria that would usually cause disease, but is inactivated with formalin solution
e.g. DTP

11

What is a subunit vaccine (definition + example)

Vaccine including only the antigens that best stimulate the immune system, rather than the entire microbe
e.g. recombinant Hep B vaccine

12

Pros and cons of subunit vaccines

Pros:
lower risk of adverse reactions
Can be manufactured through recombinant DNA or by growing the microbe in lab and chemically separating the desired antigens
Cons:
Scientists must identify which antigens best stimulate the immune system first (this may be 1-20)

13

What is an inactivated vaccine (definition + examples)

Vaccine produced by killing the disease-causing microbe with chemicals, heat or radiation
E.g. IPV, influenza, HepA

14

Pros and cons of inactivated vaccines

PROS:
Cannot mutate back to disease-causing state
Don't usually require refrigeration (therefore easy to store and transport, especially in developing world)
CONS:
stimulate a weaker immune response than live vaccines

15

What are live attenuated vaccines (definition + examples)

Vaccines containing a version of the living microbe that has been weakened so that it cannot cause disease
e.g. viral: MMR, VZV, rotavirus
bacterial: vibrio cholerae

16

What are pros and cons of live attenuated vaccines

PROS:
Elicit strong cellular and antibody responses
Often lead to lifelong immunity after 1-2 doses

CONS:
cannot be given to those with damaged or weak immune systems
Must be refrigerated (not suitable in some developing areas)
Easier to create for viruses than for bacteria