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Flashcards in Austrian Producers Deck (25):
1

Emmerich Knoll

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Summary/Style?
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Top Wine Produced?

Wachau
Winery Location: Unterloiben

-currently run by Emmerich II
-known for some of the most age-worthy and terroir-driven expressions of the Unterloiben.
-Emmerich and sons tend to predominantly Grüner Veltliner and Riesling (over 90%) as well as Chardonnay, Gelber Muskateller, Rivaner, Gelber Traminer and Pinot Noir.
-Grapes are hand-harvested and malolactic fermentation is blocked.
-Large, inert oak foudres are employed almost exclusively (some steel is used) for oxidative purposes.
-Knoll’s Smaragd Grüner Veltliner and Riesling are renowned for being able to age for decades.
-In addition to his dry bottlings, Knoll produces a Beerenauslese and Trockenbeerenauslese in vintages conducive to botrytis (including 2000, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007).
-labels adorning Knoll’s bottles depict St. Urban, the patron saint of winemaking

—Principal Vineyard Holdings: 15 ha
-Loibenberg: mostly loess and loam with a granite and gneiss topsoil; southern exposure and one of the warmest sites in the Wachau
-Schütt: primarily granite, loess and loam; southeastern exposure at 1,500 feet above sea level
-Kellerberg: primarily Gfoehler gneiss and slate, a cooler Wachau expression with a southeast exposure
-Kreutles: mostly loess and loam with a granite and gneiss topsoil; directly below the Loibenberg with a slightly less steep aspect than Loibenberg
-Pfaffenberg (Kremstal): primarily gneiss, granite, schist and loess; very steep slopes above the Danube
—Top Wines Produced:
Loibenberg Riesling Smaragd
Loibenberg Grüner Veltliner Smaragd
Loibenberg Riesling Federspiel
Schütt Riesling Smaragd
Schütt Grüner Veltliner Smaragd
Kellerberg Riesling Smaragd
Kreutles Grüner Veltliner Federspiel
Kreutles Grüner Veltliner Smaragd
Grüner Veltliner Beerenauslese
Pfaffenberg “Selection” Riesling

2

Bründlmayer?

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Kamptal
Winery Location: Langenlois

Year Established: First bottled in 1947

-Often cited as Austria’s premier winery
-began under Willi Bründlmayer Sr. who came from a family of winegrowers who sold their wines to restaurants in cask.
-After WWII, acquired unused or abandoned vineyard holdings, many would become known as Austria’s best vineyard sites.
-bottled his first vintage in 1947
—“Bründlmayer” training system (now known as the Lyre training system) in the 1970’s. Willi Sr felt this system, that opens the canopy to allow sunshine on one side and shade on the opposite side, particularly suited Grüner Veltliner and Riesling.
-vineyards are farmed organically and worked by hand.
—Willi Bründlmayer Jr. grew up assisting his father and worked in both Valais and Burgundy in his teenage years; took over from his father and managed the estate since 1981
-single-vineyard Grüner Veltliner and Riesling bottlings make up the winery’s top wines, but boasts an extensive range that includes Zweigelt, St. Laurent, Pinot Noir, and Chardonnay, along with traditional method sparkling wines.
-Grapes are hand harvested and multiple passes made through the vineyard to avoid botrysized grapes completely.
-grapes are not de-stemmed or crushed before pressing to allow for as little handling of the fruit as possible
- 1 exception: a small portion of grapes from each lot are held back, de-stemmed, and macerated for several hours; used by Willi and Cellar Master Josef Knorr during blending to add texture to final wines.
-Willi and Knorr use ambient yeasts taken from previous vintages or small yeast samples off grapes still on the vine to inoculate and begin fermentation.
-Fermentation takes place in stainless steel or large neutral cask, depending on variety and site.
-Aging takes place in the temperature-controlled cellar, 3-18 months in barrel depending on variety.
-The Alte Reben, or “Old Vine” wines are fermented in new oak and the name designates wines sourced from vines over 50 years old.
-sparkling wines, the Brut and Brut Rosé age on the lees for eighteen months (Extra Brut spends 18-36 months) before riddling and disgorging.
—Principal Vineyard Holdings: 80 ha
-Heiligenstein
-Käferberg: soil is sandy clay
-Loiser Berg: soils are gneiss, mica schist, some clay and loess; south and southeast facing; planted to Grüner Veltliner
-Steinmassel
-Berg-Vogelsang: soils are mica schist; southwest facing; planted to Grüner Veltliner
-Lamm: soils are chalky clay and loess on siltstone; south facing; planted to Grüner Veltliner; one of the warmest sites
—Top Wines Produced:
Grüner Veltliner Kamptaler Terrassen
Grüner Veltliner Alte Reben: fermented in 300L Austrian oak casks, aged in 2500L barrel
Gruner Veltliner Loiser Berg: made in similar style to the Berg-Vogelsang, but the exposition is different and the site experiences marginally warmer and more protected microclimate
Grüner Veltliner Berg Vogelsang: bottled early
Grüner Veltliner Ried Lamm Auslese
Grüner Veltliner Spiegel
Riesling Kamptaler Terrassen
Riesling Steinmassel
Riesling Zöbinger Heiligenstein
Sekt Brut: a blend of predominately Pinot Noir and Chardonnay with remaining amount Pinot Gris, Pinot Blanc, and Grüner Veltliner. Vintage late harvest Pinot Blanc is used as the dosage.
Brut Rosé: a blend of Pinot Noir, Zweigelt, and St Laurent.

3

Prager

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Wachau
Winery Location: Weissenkirchen
-one of the oldest in the Wachau: first documented mention of it dates back to 1302.
-best known for its single-vineyard bottlings of eight different Rieslings and seven different Grüner Veltliners.
-Franz is a founding member of the Vinea Wachau Nobilis Distictus, where he served as chairman until 1988.
-estate is now run by his daughter, Ilse, and husband Anton (Toni) Bodenstein.
-known for their high acid levels, low residual sugar, purity and freshness.
-picked in multiple passes to avoid harvesting any grapes affected by botrytis.
-does not use any herbicides, insecticides or fertilizers
-fermentation is carried out by natural yeast, and grapes are typically de-stemmed and macerated on the skins for up to 15 hours.
-temperature-controlled stainless steel is used for the entire production of Prager wines. The wines are left in the tank on their fine lees until bottling, which typically occurs in February for the Federspiel wines and April for the Smaragd.

—Principal Vineyard Holdings: 16.5 hectares
-Achleiten Stockkultur: 0.4 ha; soil is silty-loam; vines in the top, Stockkultur parcel of the Achleiten vineyard were planted in 1938—some of the oldest in the Wachau
-Hinter der Burg: 4.4 ha; soil is mica schist; hillside vineyard behind the town of Weissenkirchen; site has been in the family since 1712 but named in the 13th century, it means “behind the castle”; planted with Grüner Veltliner in 1921
-Wachstum Bodenstein: 1.6 ha; soil is a mix of gneiss, mica schist and silty-loam; this is the highest planted vineyard in the Wachau at 460 meters, planted with 100 different clones of mostly young-vine Grüner Veltliner as well as 15 different Riesling clones
-Steinriegl: 4.8 ha; soil is calcareous, rocky and silty-loam; the only vineyard west of Weissenkirchen in the Prager holdings, this produces both Federspiel and Smaragd Riesling (Federspiel is the flagship); five separate parcels owned by the family, planted to Riesling in 1949, 1953, 1961, 1977, and 1990.
-Klaus: 1.6 ha; soil is gneiss, mica schist and silty-loam; planted to Riesling during WWI and then replanted again in 1953, located east of Achleiten
—Top Wines Produced & Inaugural Vintages:
Achleiten Stockkultur Grüner Veltliner Smaragd: Inaugural vintage 1999.
Hinter der Burg Grüner Veltliner Smaragd: Inaugural vintage 1953 (1986 for Federspiel).
Wachstum Bodenstein Grüner Veltliner Smaragd: Inaugural vintage 1997.
Steinriegl Riesling Federspiel: Inaugural vintage 1986 (1988 for Smaragd).
Klaus Riesling Smaragd: Inaugural vintage 1953 (1986 for Smaragd).
Wachstum Bodenstein Riesling Smaragd: Inaugural vintage 1997.

4

F.X. Pichler

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Region of Production: Wachau, Austria

Winery Location: Oberloiben

Year Established: 1898

Summary: F.X. Pichler is often cited as one of the Wachau’s finest estates, having achieved cult status in Austria and membership in Vinea Wachau. Franz Pichler Sr. began a selection of his finest Grüner Veltliner grapes in 1928, but the winery gained most of its acclaim under Franz Xaver (or “F.X.”) Pichler, who took over in 1971. The winery’s trademark is their single-vineyard Grüner Veltliners and Rieslings, the majority of which are Smaragd level (80% of production is Smaragd, the remaining Federspeil). F.X.’s son Lucas joined in 1996, and took over winemaking in 1999 with F.X. continuing to manage the vineyards. Lucas took complete control of vineyard management and winemaking on F.X.’s official retirement in 2009, the same year a new cellar was constructed. In addition to their vineyard-designate wines, they make two top-end cuvees, “F.X. Unendlich” (German for never-ending), first made in 1988, and “M” (for “monumental”), first made in 1991. Each is a selection of the best grapes from different vineyards.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 18 ha

Frauenweingarten: sandy soil, planted to Grüner Veltliner for Federspiel wines
Klostersatz
Oberhauser: subsite within Klostersatz, gravel soils; planted to Riesling
Burgstall: gneiss and granite soil; planted to Riesling for Federspiel wines
Steinertal: located between Loibenberg and Pfaffenbergl soil is weathered gneiss,
Loibenberg: primitive rock soil; planted to Riesling and Grüner Veltliner
Dürnsteiner Liebenberg: soil is gneiss and mica schist
Dürnsteiner Kellerberg
Average Total Production: 10,000 cases

Top Wines Produced:

Grüner Veltliner Dürnsteiner Liebenberg Smaragd
Grüner Veltliner Loibner Berg Smaragd
Grüner Veltliner Loibner Steinertal Smaragd
Grüner Veltliner Kellerberg Smaragd
Grüner Veltliner Urgestein Terrassen
Grüner Veltliner ‘M’ Smaragd
Riesling Burgstall Federspiel
Riesling Steinertal Smaragd
Riesling Loibner Berg Smaragd
Riesling ‘M’ Reserve
Riesling Dürnsteiner Kellerberg Smaragd
Riesling Unendlich Smaragd (1998)
Style / Vinification Techniques: Wines are made according to the principles of Vinea Wachau – grapes are harvested by hand (F.X. Pichler harvests late for prime physiological ripeness) and there is no chapitalization or additives. The wines are aged in traditional large oak casks and are not fined prior to bottling.

5

Schloss Gobelsburg

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Region of Production: Kamptal, Austria

Winery Location: Langenlois

Year Established: 1171/1996 (current proprietors)

Summary: Schloss Gobelsburg has a long viticultural history dating back to the 12th century when Cistercian monks began cultivating the land. The estate changed ownership several times over the years, before Michael and Eva Moosbrugger purchased the winery in 1996. Michael began under the mentorship of Willi Bründlmayer and continues managing the winery and making the wines today. Michael developed a system, referred to as his “dynamic cellar concept,” for wines to be transported in casks on wheels in lieu of pumping to various locations within the cellar because of the varying temperature areas within the large cellar. Gobelsburg’s “Tradition” line of Grüner Veltliner and Riesling are in homage to the traditions of the early 19th century, part of Michael’s endeavor to make wine as it had been during the pre-technological era and to understand the ideas behind these wines. The winery also produces Gobelsburger, their well-known second label that permits the use of purchased fruit. Their holdings include 50%, Grüner Veltliner, 25% Riesling, with the remaining plantings dedicated to Zweigelt, Blauburgunder, St. Laurent, and Merlot.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 49 ha

Heiligenstein: planted to Riesling
Gaisberg: planted to Riesling
Lamm: planted to Grüner Veltliner
Renner: planted to Grüner Veltliner
Grub: planted to Grüner Veltliner
Steinsetz
Average Total Production: 20,000 cases

Top Wines Produced:

Grüner Veltliner Renner
Grüner Veltliner Steinsetz
Grüner Veltliner Lamm
Grüner Veltliner “Tradition”
Riesling “Tradition”
Riesling Gaisberg
Riesling Heiligenstein
Gobelsburger Grüner Veltliner
Gobelsburger Riesling
NV Brut Reserve: a Gruner and Riesling dominated blend with Pinot Noir, Zweigelt, and St. Laurent.
Style / Vinification Techniques: In the winery, a combination of stainless steel tanks and large, neutral oak casks are used, wines are fermented using indigenous yeast. Timber from Manhartsberg (a region north of Langenlois) is used for the large and small oak casks in lieu of oak from France or the United States.

6

Nikolaihof

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Region of Production: Wachau, Austria

Winery Location: Mautern (dry climated; good for organic viticulture.)

Year Established: 1894

Summary: Nikolaihof is one of the oldest estates in Austria, reaching back 2,000 years to Roman times, making it the oldest winery in the Wachau. The winery is located in Mautern, at the southern bank of the Danube, protected by the rain shadow of the Krems hillsides. The Saahs family purchased the estate from the church in 1894 (and boasts a 4th century Roman wine cellar still in use!), but winemaking did not really take off commercially until the 1960s. At the time, they could not afford the prevailing chemical treatments, so they worked without using chemical pesticides or herbicides. They officially began practicing biodynamic farming in 1971, and were the first Austrian winery to be Demeter certified in 1998. To this day, the estate is well known as somewhat of a bastion of biodynamic farming and principles. While Riesling (55%) and Grüner Veltliner (35%) dominate their plantings, small quantities of Neuburger, Gelber Muskateller, Gewürztraminer, Frühroter Veltliner, and Chardonnay are also grown. Klaus Saahs retired in 1985, and Klaus and Christine Saahs recently handed over winemaking responsibility to their son Nikolaus.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 22 ha

Steiner Hund
Klausberg
Im Weingebirge
Vom Stein
Süssenburg
Average Total Production: 8,300 cases

Top Wines Produced:

Grüner Veltliner Hefeabzug
Grüner Veltliner Im Weingebirge Federspiel
Grüner Veltliner Im Weingebirge Smaragd
Riesling Vom Stein Federspiel
Riesling Vom Stein Smaragd
Grüner Veltliner/Riesling “Nikolauswine” Trockenbeerenauslese
Style / Vinification Techniques: The winemaking philosophy is focused on their biodynamic growing methods, with careful attention in the vineyard, and little cellar intervention. Harvest is always by hand, and the winery employs what they refer to as “natural fermentations,” using indigenous yeasts and little temperature control. The wines typically see long aging on the lees in neutral, old Austrian oak vessels. Sulfur additions are minimal, only before bottling, and Nikolaus eschews fining and filtration whenever possible. Their winemaking tradition also includes wines under their Vinothek label; these wine rest in 3,000L neutral oak casks, unsulfured for fourteen (or more) years before being bottled.

7

Hirtzberger

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Region of Production: Wachau, Austria

Winery Location: Spitz an der Donau

Year Established: The Hirtzberger family first purchased land and planted vines in the village in the late 1800s.

Summary: The Hirtzberger estate is located in the western end of the Wachau in Spitz, where the Hirtzberger family has lived and farmed for five generations. Franz Hirtzberger Sr. took over in 1983 and built a reputation for dry, terroir-oriented wines before the Austrian’s 1985 wine scandal. He was one of the founding members of Vinea Wachau (along with Joseph Jamek, Franz Prager, and Wilhelm Schwengler). During the eighties, Franz expanded the family’s vineyard holdings and renovated the cellar. The Hirtzberger philosophy centers around harvesting as late as possible, often with multiple passes through the same vineyard to achieve the best physiological ripeness. Franz Hirtzberger Jr. has recently taken the reins from his father and continues to manage the winemaking in the same fashion.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 15 ha

Donaugarten: lowest altitude vineyard above Danube, planted to Grüner Veltliner for Steinfeder wines
Rotes Tor: soil is gneiss, mica, and schist; planted to Grüner Veltliner Federspiel and Smaragd wines
Axpoint: younger vineyard, soil is predominantly clay; planted to Grüner Veltliner for Smaragd wines
Honivogl: planted to Grüner Veltliner
Setzberg: highest altitude of their vineyards, soil is gneiss
Hochrain: soil is sandy loam over weathered rock; planted to Riesling
Singerriedel: soil is gneiss, mica, and schist; planted to Riesling for Smaragd wines
Pluris: soil is primarily clay; planted to Grauburgunder
Steinporz: soil is weathered gneiss; planted to Weissbergunder
Schlossgarten: planted to Chardonnay
Average Total Production: unknown

Top Wines Produced:

Axpoint Grüner Veltliner Smaragd
Hochrain Riesling Smaragd
Honivogl Grüner Veltliner Smaragd
Kirchweg Grüner Veltliner Smaragd
Pluris Grauburgunder Smaragd
Rotes Tor Grüner Veltliner Federspiel
Rotes Tor Grüner Veltliner Smaragd
Setzberg Riesling Smaragd
Singerriedel Riesling Smaragd
Steinerterrassen Riesling Federspiel
Steinporz Weissburgunder Smaragd
Style / Vinification Techniques: All vineyards harvested by hand. Both commercial yeasts and indigenous yeasts have been used for fermentation in temperature-controlled stainless steel. Following fermentation wines are aged in large, older 30-50 hectoliter foudres. Winemaking is more reductive in style and wines do not see extended time on the lees or bâtonnage.

8

Hirsch

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Region of Production: Kamptal, Austria

Winery Location: Kammern

Year Established: 1878

Summary: Johannes Hirsch, considered a young pioneer of both Kamptal and Austria as a whole, manages the family winery along with his father and his wife Sandra. Their biodynamic farming practices are a core part of the Hirsch philosophy. Hirsch was also one of the first estates to bottle its entire portfolio under screwcap—a much more common practice currently than it was when Hirsch started doing so. The estate grows Grüner Veltliner and Riesling exclusively, making three single-vineyard bottlings of each, with recent plans to expand further. Generally the wines are lower in alcohol and, though predictably dry, may be bottled with residual sugar if the fermentation does not finish dry naturally. Johannes releases his wines when he feels they have seen proper maturation regardless of current vintage.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 31 ha

Kammerner Lamm
Zöbinger Gaisberg
Zöbinger Heiligenstein
Average Total Production: 12,500 cases

Top Wines Produced & Inaugural Vintages:

Grüner Veltliner
Grüner Veltliner Heiligenstein
Grüner Veltliner Renner
Grüner Veltliner Lamm
Riesling Zöbing
Riesling Gaisberg
Riesling Heiligenstein
Brief Description of Style & Vinification Techniques: Grapes are hand harvested and whole cluster pressed. Fermentation begins by indigenous yeasts and commercial yeasts are not added if fermentation does not finish. Wines are often left on their lees into the following year after harvest, though this practice varies by variety and vintage.

9

Rudi Pichler

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Region of Production: Wachau

Winery Location: Wösendorf

Year Established: 1904

Summary: The Pichler family has been making wine in the Wachau since the late 19th century. Rudolph “Rudi” Pichler III took over from his father in 1997, and has expanded the estate’s vineyard holdings and built a new, modernized cellar in 2004. The estate’s focus is primarily Grüner Veltliner and Riesling, though small amounts of Weissburgunder and Roter Veltliner are planted as well.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 12.5 ha owned, 3 ha purchased

Achleithen
Hochrain
Kollmütz
Kirchweg
Terrassen
Average Total Production: 8,300 cases

Top Wines Produced & Inaugural Vintages:

Grüner Veltliner Federspiel
Grüner Veltliner Smaragd Achleithen
Grüner Veltliner Smaragd Hochrain
Grüner Veltliner Smaragd Kollmütz
Grüner Veltliner Smaragd Terrassen
Riesling Federspiel
Riesling Smaragd Achleithen
Riesling Smaragd Hochrain
Riesling Smaragd Kirchweg
Riesling Smaragd Terrassen
Weissburgunder Smaragd Kollmütz
Brief Description of Style & Vinification Techniques: Indigenous yeasts are used for fermentation, though temperature control is used in the cellar. Rudi does not use commercial yeast to finish stuck fermentations, choosing to allow residual sugar if fermentation does not finish. He experiments with fermenting wines on the skins for extraction and prefers blanketing with carbon dioxide in lieu of sulfur additions. Stainless steel, large format neutral oak, and small oak barrels are all used for fermentation and aging, but oak is never prominent in the wines.

10

Nigl

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Region of Production: Kremstal

Winery Location: Senftenberg

Year Established: 1985

Summary: Up the narrow valley of the Krems river, Nigl is situated just below the ancient castle of Senftenberg. The Nigl family has been farming in the area for over 200 years but has only grown grapes since the 1960s. After Martin Nigl earned his oenology degree, he took over the family vineyards in 1985 and began bottling and selling wine under the family name. In addition to the estate’s vineyards, Nigl also purchases grapes from growers in the area, accounting for the majority of their entry-level wines. Martin Nigl is known for a very pragmatic style of winemaking, farming sustainably with no herbicides or insecticides, but if necessary he will spray sulfur to control odium. In addition to mostly Grüner Veltliner and Riesling, Nigl grows small quantities of Sauvignon Blanc, Weissburgunder, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Gelber Muskateller, Zweigelt, St. Laurent and Merlot.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 25 ha

Hochäcker
Pellingen: 5 ha planted to Grüner Veltliner and Riesling
Senftenberger Piri: 10 ha across three plots; bottled under the name Piri
Rehberger Goldberg: 3 ha Riesling
Kirchenberg: 4 small terraces situated next to the winery
Average Total Production: 30,000 cases

Top Wines Produced & Inaugural Vintages:

Grüner Veltliner Gärtling
Grüner Veltliner Kremser Freiheit
Grüner Veltliner Senftenberger Piri
Grüner Veltliner Alte Reben
Grüner Veltliner Privat: made from the best grapes of the oldest vines at the top of Senftenberger Piri
Grüner Veltliner Trockenbeerenauslese
Riesling Dornleiten
Riesling Senftenberger Piri
Riesling Hochäcker
Riesling Privat
Riesling Trockenbeerenauslese
Brief Description of Style & Vinification Techniques: The house style tends toward a very structured, linear profile (commonly attributed to the weathered, granite soil of most of the vineyards). Harvest tends to last a little over a month so as to pick bunches at peak ripeness—and always by hand. In the winery, stainless steel tanks and commercial yeast strains are used for the entry-level wines, while native yeasts and large, used oak barrels (1600-2000 liters) are used for the Privat and alte reben bottlings.

11

Veyder-Malberg

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Region of Production: Wachau, Austria

Winery Location: Spitz an der Donau

Year Established: 2008

Summary: The winery was founded in 2008 and is named after founder and winemaker Peter Veyder-Malberg, a relative newcomer to the Wachau, After previous work in advertising, Peter has worked in Napa, Tuscany, New Zealand, and Germany and worked for fourteen years as Manager of winegrowing and oenology at the Graf Hardegg estate (Weinviertal). Peter is dedicated to working his vineyard parcels entirely by hand and began his label around the concept of working with some of the Wachau’s older vineyards that cannot be worked by machine, standing risk of being cleared. Farming is organic and biodynamic. Each wine carries a “Handarbeit” label on the neck signifying “handmade” (excluding the Liebedich Grüner, with fruit from a parcel requiring tractor work). Adhering to his belief that wine quality is connected to vineyard site rather than sugar and alcohol levels, he does not use standard Wachau designations (Steinfeder, Federspiel, Smaragd).

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 4 ha

Kreutles: planted to Grüner Veltliner
Liebedich: planted to Grüner Veltliner
Hochrain: planted to Grüner Veltliner
Weitenberg: planted to Grüner Veltliner, oldest parcel (55+ years)
Bruck: planted to Riesling
Buschenberg: planted to Riesling
Average Total Production: 1700 cases

Top Wines Produced:

Kreutles Grüner Veltliner
Liebedich Grüner Veltliner
Hochrain Grüner Veltliner
Weitenberg Grüner Veltliner – fermented and aged in wooden barrels
Bruck Riesling
Buschenberg Riesling
Style / Vinification Techniques: Peter farms organically and biodynamically, but is not certified. Grapes are hand harvested and pressed gently, sometimes with stems. An initial racking is done prior to fermentation, carried out by indigenous yeasts (commercial yeasts are added only to finish the wine if and when fermentations become stuck). Grüner Veltliner occasionally sees a light fining with bentonite, and minimum sulfur is added prior to bottling.

12

Alzinger

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Region of Production: Wachau, Austria

Winery Location: Unterloiben

Year Established: Alzinger has been producing grapes for three generations, though they sold their grapes to co-ops until 1980, when Leo Alzinger founded the winery. In 1986, Alzinger stopped selling grapes and focused entirely on estate production.

Summary: Leo Alzinger Jr. trained at the college of Klosterneuburg and is now helping his father, Leo Sr., in the vineyards and winery. The estate started with four hectares and has now grown to 11 ha. Riesling is cultivated on the higher, rockier parcels, and Grüner Veltliner is cultivated on the lower loess-based parcels.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 11 hectares total; 55% planted to Grüner Veltliner, 40% to Riesling, 5% to Chardonnay

Loibenberg: 1.5 ha; steep terraces
Steinertal: 5.5 ha; cooler microclimate; the un-terraced, lower part of Steinertal goes by Muhlpoint
Liebenberg: 0.5 ha
Durnsteiner
Hollerin
Average Total Production: 5,000-6,000 cases

Top Wines Produced:

Frauenweingarten Grüner Veltliner Federspiel
Loibenberg Grüner Veltliner Smaragd
Muhlpoint Grüner Veltliner Federspiel
Muhlpoint Grüner Veltliner Smaragd
Steinertal Grüner Veltliner Smaragd
Durnsteiner Riesling Federspiel
Hollerin Riesling Smaragd
Liebenberg Riesling Smaragd
Loibenberg Riesling Smaragd
Steinertal Riesling Smaragd
Inaugural Vintage (for top wines): 1985 for Loibenberg; 1991 for Steinertal

Style / Vinification Techniques: Leo Junior and Senior believe in harvesting their old vines later than their neighbors in order to push physiological ripeness, yet they still pick pristine (non-botrytized) fruit. They employ whole-cluster fermentation with short skin maceration.

13

Domäne Wachau

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Region of Production: Wachau, Austria

Winery Location: Dürnstein

Year Established: 1938

Summary: Previously known as Freie Weingärtner, Domäne Wachau is a cooperative association of growers with about 800 members. For many years, the cooperative was reputed as a top quality cooperative. But internal politics in the early 2000s led to the departure of the team of directors, and the cooperative underwent various changes in the next few years as wine quality declined. In 2004 Roman Horvath MW was brought on with winemaker Heinz Frischengruber, to reestablish the cooperative among the region’s best, and in 2008 the cooperative changed its name to Domäne Wachau. Today, Domäne Wachau remains the largest producer in the Wachau, working with 250 growers (contracted for five-year terms) who cultivate approximately 450 hectares.

In recent years, Domäne Wachau established a quality assurance initiative that provided a reward system in which co-op members could participate voluntarily through the use of holistic and sustainable viticulture methods to ensure fruit quality. Grüner Veltliner (55%) and Riesling (18%) make up the majority of production. The cooperative is the largest producer of Neuburger in the Wachau, but also produces small amounts of Rivaner, Pinot Blanc, Chardonnay, and Muskateller. Blauer Zweigelt, St. Laurent, and Pinot Noir red wines make up only 6% of production.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 450 ha

Average Total Production: unknown

Top Wines Produced:

Grüner Veltliner Federspiel Kollmitz
Grüner Veltliner Federspiel Kaiserberg
Grüner Veltliner Federspiel Loibenberg
Grüner Veltliner Smaragd Axpoint
Grüner Veltliner Smaragd Pichlpoint
Grüner Veltliner Smaragd Achleiten
Grüner Veltliner Smaragd Kellerberg
Riesling Federspiel Bruck
Riesling Federspiel 1000-Eimer-Berg
Riesling Federspiel Loibenberg
Riesling Smaragd Singerriedel
Riesling Smaragd Achleiten
Riesling Smaragd Kellerberg
Riesling Smaragd Loibenberg
Style / Vinification Techniques: Domäne Wachau practices protective juice handling and reductive fermentation. The juice is given two days to settle and cool fermentation using commercial yeasts in temperature-controlled stainless steel follows. Smaragd wines ferment slightly warmer than others. Single-vineyard wines remain on the fine lees and may be aged in large neutral cask. Sulfur additions are made several weeks after fermentation and again prior to bottling.

14

Loimer

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Region of Production: Kamptal, Austria

Winery Location: Langenlois

Year Established: 1962

Summary: Fred Loimer Jr. currently acts as manager and winemaker of the Loimer estate. He attended Austria’s Klosterneuburg University and later worked internships at wineries in Nahe and Napa Valley. In 1997 he took over from his father and purchased and renovated an addition to the cellar in 1998. Loimer’s modern winery and cellar allows for grape and wines to be gravity-fed into the older cellar without use of pumps. During the '90s, the wines were made in a richer, sometimes overripe style with high alcohol levels; the style has evolved into a lighter, more classic style. The vineyards have been biodynamically farmed since 2006, certified by Austria’s RESPEKT. Loimer’s range includes three general levels: the entry-level Kamptal DAC Grüner Veltliner and Riesling are blends of different vineyard parcels while Kamptal DAC Reserve represent single-vineyard Langenlois origin. The third tier of wines represent the Langenlois “Erste Lage” sites, Käferberg, Spiegel, Seeberg, and Steinmassl.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 80 ha; 60 ha in Langenlois, Kamptal; remaining ha in Gumpoldskirchen, Thermenregion

Loiserberg: soil is gneiss and mica slate, planted to 5-50 year-old Riesling; southeast-facing; 330-400m above sea level
Schenkenbichl: soil is gneiss, south and southeast-facing
Lauser: gneiss soil; 10-year-old vines west-facing
Käferberg: soil is sand and clay; southeast-facing; planted to 10-50-year-old Riesling; 310-345m above seal level
Seeberg: soil is mica slate and weathered gneiss; planted to 20-50 year-old Riesling vines and 20-year-old Grüner Veltliner
Spiegel: loess soils; east and southeast-facing; planted to 20-50-year-old Grüner Veltliner vines; 270-300 m above sea level
Steinmassl: soil is gneiss and mica slate, planted to 15-50 year-old Riesling vines
Kogelberg: soil is weathered gneiss; southeast facing; 330-350 m above sea level; planted to 40-year-old Grüner Veltliner vines
Heiligenstein: soil is reddish-brown sandstone, coarse conglomerates, minor siltstone; planted to 20-30 year-old Riesling vines
Average Total Production: 50,000 cases

Top Wines Produced:

Grüner Veltliner Kamptal DAC
Grüner Veltliner Terrassen Kamptal DAC Reserve
Grüner Veltliner Loiserberg Kamptal DAC Reserve
Grüner Veltliner Käferberg Kamptal DAC Reserve
Grüner Veltliner Spiegel Kamptal DAC Reserve
Riesling Kamptal DAC
Riesling Terrassen Kamptal DAC Reserve
Riesling Loiserberg Kamptal DAC Reserve
Riesling Steinmassl Kamptal DAC Reserve
Riesling Seeberg Kamptal DAC Reserve
Riesling Heiligenstein Kamptal DAC Reserve
Style / Vinification Techniques: Grapes are hand harvested and see a few hours of skin maceration prior to fermentation. Fermentation begins from indigenous yeasts in stainless steel or 1,250-2,500L neutral cask. The Grüner Veltliner wines ferment in neutral cask, while Rieslings wines are typically split between stainless steel and neutral acacia barrel for fermentation. Following fermentation, wines age on their heavy lees for an average of 4-6 months and are then racked into stainless steel for another 2-3 months of aging on their fine lees before bottling.

15

Bernhard Ott

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Region of Production: Wagram

Winery Location: Feuersbrunn

Year Established: 1889

Summary: Bernhard Ott is the fourth generation of Otts producing wine in the lower Wagram. He made his first vintage in 1993 and took over from his father in 1995. Upon taking over winemaking responsibilities, Bernhard updated and modernized the cellar, including adding new stainless steel tanks, began bottling with stelvin closures, and converted the vineyards to biodynamic farming. The Ott vineyard holdings are now entirely converted and certified by Austria’s RESPEKT.

Although he makes a couple of Riesling wines, Bernhard is primarily known for his focus on Grüner Veltliner. He is considered a rising star in Austrian wine, and leads the way in Wagram with his diligent and sustainable vineyard management. Ott is an outspoken proponent of biodynamic practices and every year is one of the earliest to harvest in the region. He firmly attributes this change from the winery’s former late harvesting practice to his adoption of biodynamic farming practices.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 30 ha

Feuersbrunner Spiegel
Feuresbrunner Rosenberg
Engabrunner Stein (in the Kamptal)
Average Total Production: 25,000 cases

Top Wines Produced & Inaugural Vintages:

Grüner Veltliner Am Berg
Grüner Veltliner “Der Ott”
Grüner Veltliner “Fass 4”
Grüner Veltliner Spiegel
Grüner Veltliner Stein
Grüner Veltliner Rosenberg
Grüner Veltliner “Qvevre”: made in Georgian amphora
Riesling Vom Rotem Schotter
Brief Description of Style & Vinification Techniques: Grapes are hand harvested, de-stemmed, and fermented in stainless steel. Bernhard embraces a more reductive winemaking style and does not stir the lees of his wines. His Grüner Veltliner “Qvevre” is an outlier of his portfolio for its fermentation in Georgian amphora.

16

Leth

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Region of Production: Wagram, Austria

Winery Location: Fels

Year Established: 1960

Summary: Franz Leth Jr. is the current head of winemaking for the Leth estate. The estate’s farming practices are sustainable—no herbicides have been used for more than 25 years and Franz uses chemical plant protection only when absolutely necessary. Production is 25% red and wines are offered in "Classic" and "Lagenreserven" designations. Notably, Franz’s father, Franz Leth Sr. began collecting indigenous Austrian grape varieties, eventually creating a living grape museum boasting nearly 150 varieties. Occasionally the estate produces single varietal wines from some of these nearly extinct varieties for their tasting room.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 40 ha

Average Total Production: 25,000 cases

Top Wines Produced:

Grüner Veltliner Classic
Grüner Veltliner Brunnthal
Grüner Veltliner Kabinett
Roter Veltliner Classic
Riesling Classic
Style / Vinification Techniques: After pressing, wines are fined and fermented at cooler temperatures entirely in stainless steel. The estate’s white wines then age in stainless steel tanks until bottling, while the reds age in small new oak barrels.

17

Hiedler

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Region of Production: Kamptal, Austria

Winery Location: Langenlois

Year Established: 1856

Summary: Ludwig Hiedler is the fourth generation of Hiedlers that have made wine in Langenlois since the mid-nineteenth century. The estate has been in the hands of Ludwig and his wife since 1980, and under direct management since 1988. The farming and winemaking philosophies have both changed gradually over the past decade; Ludwig began experimenting with organic farming in the Thal and Kittmansberg vineyards and has slowly implemented the practice throughout others. In more recent years Ludwig has also stopped using commercial yeasts, preferring spontaneous fermentations without temperature control or additives. The wines are considered more oxidative in style, and an outlier from the classic Austrian style. The Hiedlers were one of the founders of the Traditionsweingüter Österreich.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 28 ha

Thal: sandy loess and loam
Kittmansberg: loam soil with layers of loess
Steinhaus: gneiss with amphibolite
Gaisberg: sandy, weathered soils; planted to Riesling
Heiligenstein: planted to Riesling vines 30-50 years-old
Average Total Production: 16,500 cases

Top Wines Produced:

Grüner Veltliner Federspiel
Grüner Veltliner Thal
Grüner Veltliner Kittmansberg
Grüner Veltliner “Maximum”: multiple selections of their best vineyards
Riesling Urgestein
Riesling Steinhaus
Riesling Gaisberg
Riesling Heiligenstein
Riesling “Maximum”: multiple selections of their best vineyards
Style / Vinification Techniques: Grapes are hand harvested, but not whole cluster pressed, as Ludwig feels whole cluster pressing causes a loss of extract in the wine. Though commercial yeasts were used for a long time, fermentations now begin by indigenous yeasts. Malolactic fermentation is not blocked if it begins. Wines age in stainless steel or casks made from Langenlois acacia and typically see extended lees aging and selective bâtonnage.

18

Huber

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Region of Production: Traisental, Austria

Winery Location: Reichersdorf

Year Established: 1648

Summary: Markus Huber is the 10th generation of the Huber winemaking family, and has been instrumental in expanding the estate from the 4 ha that supplied the family restaurant to the commercial winery it is today. Markus took over from his father in 2000 and makes the wine with his brother Michael. The winery produces primarily Grüner Veltliner and Riesling, with a small amount of Zweigelt, Sauvignon Blanc, and Gelber Muskateller (less than 10% collectively).

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 40 ha

Obere Steigen: soil is limestone and sandy loam top soil, planted to 25-80 year-old Grüner Veltliner vines
Alte Setzen: soil is limestone with loess top soil; Huber’s oldest vines, planted to Grüner Veltliner
Engelreich: conglomerate soil with high chalk content; planted to Riesling
Berg: mineral conglomerate soil; higher altitude vineyard producing lower yields; planted to Grüner Veltliner and Riesling
Average Total Production: 55,000 cases

Top Wines Produced:

Grüner Veltliner Traisental DAC
Grüner Veltliner Traisental Obere Steigen
Grüner Veltliner Alte Setzen Erste Lage
Grüner Veltliner Berg Erste Lage
Riesling Traisental DAC
Riesling Traisental DAC Engelreich
Riesling Berg Erste Lage
Style / Vinification Techniques: The wines are fermented in stainless steel with 2-18 hours of skin contact, depending on the variety and vintage, with single vineyard wines typically seeing the longest (from 12-18 hours). Post-fermentation, wines are kept on their fine lees in stainless steel or traditional wood casks—stainless steel for entry level Grüner Veltliner and Riesling and casks for the winery’s Erste Lage wines. Selective bâtonnage is employed for higher-end wines, including Riesling, for an average of 5 months.

19

Jäger

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Region of Production: Wachau, Austria

Winery Location: Weissenkirch

Year Established: 1899

Summary: The Jäger estate was founded in 1899 by fifth generation and current Roman Jäger. Roman officially studied to become an enologist at the viticultural school and training center in Klosterneuburg, followed by winery internships in Germany and South Africa. Production is quite small, with less than 8 hectares of vineyard holdings. Despite its minute production, many consider Jäger a rising star in the Austrian wine world. Jäger’s winery practices are in accord with Vinea Wachau and the estate farms its vineyards organically.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 8 ha

Klaus: soil is Gföhler Gneis (sandy consistency developed out of granite); southeast exposure.
Rose: vineyard parcel at the top end of the Vorder Seiber vineyard; weathered “Gföhler Gneis” soil
Vorder Seiber: soil is Gföhler Gneis covered with deep layers of loess; southwest exposure; youngest vines
Achleiten
Steinriegl: parcel grown on the southwest edge of Vorder Seiber vineyard; soil of lime, and silicate
Average Total Production: 4,500 cases

Top Wines Produced:

Grüner Veltliner Federspiel "Jägergarten”
Grüner Veltliner Federspiel "Klaus"
Grüner Veltliner Federspiel "Vorder Seiber“
Grüner Veltliner Federspiel "Selection"
Grüner Veltliner Smaragd "Achleiten"
Riesling Federspiel "Steinriegl"
Riesling Federspiel "Achleiten"
Riesling Smaragd "Achleiten"
Riesling Smaragd "Steinriegl": from their oldest vines (56 years-old)
Style / Vinification Techniques: Grapes are hand harvested. The wines are fermented in temperature-controlled stainless steel tanks by cultured yeasts and stopped intentionally when all natural sugars have finished fermenting. Wines remain in tank and are left to age on their fine lees for three to six months, before filtration.

20

Malat

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Region of Production: Kremstal, Austria

Winery Location: Palt

Year Established: 1722

Summary: Since 2008, Malat has been managed by Michael Malat, the ninth generation in his family to produce wine at the estate. Michael’s father, Gerald, is considered a pioneer in the Kremstal region and was responsible for expanding the family’s vineyard holdings to its current fifty hectares. The estate produces an array of wines, including Sauvignon Blanc, Muskateller, Chardonnay, Pinot Noir, Cabernet Sauvignon, and traditional method sparkling wines. Malat is best known for their Höhlgraben site, which has been a single-vineyard expression of the estate since the winery began producing domaine-bottled Grüner Veltliner and Riesling.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 50 ha

Höhlgraben: loess soil; south and southwest-facing; planted to Grüner Veltliner
Brunnkreuz: loess soil; planted to Sauvignon Blanc
Götsweiger Berg: soil is gravel and loam; planted to Grüner Veltliner
Hochrain: limestone soil; planted to Chardonnay
Landwid: loess soil; west-facing; planted to Muscat
Silberbühel (Wachau): soil is mica schist; planted to Chardonnay and Riesling
Steinbühel: rocky soil; planted to Riesling
Am Zaum (Wachau): west-facing; planted to Pinot Blanc
Zistel: soil is mix of loess, gravel and clay; planted to Pinot Blanc and Burgundy varieties
Average Total Production: unknown

Top Wines Produced:

Grüner Veltliner Das Beste
Grüner Veltliner Höhlgraben
Riesling Das Beste
Sauvignon Blanc Brunnkreuz
Brut
Brut Rosé
Style / Vinification Techniques: Grapes are hand harvested and gently pressed, with slow fermentations to allow the wines’ natural characteristics to develop.

21

Stadlmann

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Region of Production: Thermenregion, Austria

Winery Location: Traiskirchen

Year Established: 1780

Summary: Johann Stadlmann is the seventh generation of his family to run the family estate and is a key member in the Thermenregion. The vineyards are farmed organically and certified so since 2007. Grüner Veltliner and Riesling are only minor players in the winery’s portfolio, with Thermengregion’s Zierfandler and Rotgipfler taking centerstage. Stadlmann’s Mandel-Höh vineyard is considered one of the top sites in all of Austria for Zierfandler and their single vineyard Zierfandler and Rotgipfler are the winery’s hallmark wines.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 13 ha

Mandel-Höh: owned by the Stadlmann family for 175 years; considered top site for Zierfandler; soil is prehistoric muschelkalk (shell limestone)
Tagelsteiner: sandy soil with limestone gravel; planted to Rotgipfler
Höfen: soil is alluvial clay and sand; planted to Weissburgunder
Igeln: soil is prehistoric muschelkalk and sand; planted to Zierfandler grapes elected from the Mandel-Höh vineyard
Average Total Production: 5,000 cases

Top Wines Produced:

Zierfandler Mandel-Höh
Rotgipfler Tagelsteiner
Weissburgunder Höfen
Style / Vinification Techniques: Wines are fermented in stainless steel and large neutral cask. Red wines designated “Classic” are aged primarily in large wooden barrels, “Reserve” reds are aged in small oak casks for up to 18 months.

22

Lagler

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Region of Production: Wachau, Austria

Winery Location: Spitz an der Donau

Year Established: 1970s

Summary: Despite residing at its Rote Torgasse estate in Spitz since 1789, the Lagler family only began making wine in 1970 after years of growing grapes. Today the winery is run by Karl Lagler, Jr., who employs natural farming techniques to manage the family’s 13 ha of steeply terraced vineyards located in top sites in and around Wachau. The family’s holdings are planted to predominantly white grapes The winery produces an array of wines from Gruner Veltliner, Riesling, Sauvignon Blanc, Gelber Muskateller, Neuberg, Weissburgunder, and Zweigelt. All vineyard work is done by hand, including harvest. The winery is a member of Vinea Wachau and boasts a cellar dating back roughly 180 years as its centerpiece.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 13.5 ha

Steinborz
Tausendeimerberg
Setzberg
Vorderseiber
Burberg
Hartberg
Axpoint
Atzberg
Average Total Production: 6,000 cases

Top Wines Produced:

Grüner Veltliner “Elisabeth Selection” Smaragd
Grüner Veltliner Steinborz Smaragd
Grüner Veltliner Burberg Federspiel
Riesling Steinborz Smaragd
Riesling Spitzer 1000 Eimerberg
Riesling Setzberg Federspiel
Riesling Von Den Terrassen Federspiel
Neuberger Ried 1000 Eimberberg Federspiel
Neuberger Spitzer 1000 Eimberberg Smaragd
Style / Vinification Techniques: Fermentation takes place in stainless steel tanks or large oak casks, depending on the variety.

23

Högl

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Region of Production: Wachau, Austria

Winery Location: Spitz an der Donau

Year Established: 1995

Summary: Högl is located on the western edge and higher altitude region of the Wachau, called Spitzergraben. Current manager and winemaker Josef Högl established the winery in 1995. Josef worked at Prager for ten years, and he credits this time with shaping his attitude towards wine. Notably, Josef bought his first stainless steel tank from his first salary at Prager, and still uses the tank at Högl today. After Prager, Joseph went on to work for F.X. Pichler for another five years before starting his own label and establishing his winery. The winery’s vineyards are maintained by a small crew that includes Josef’s father, and are farmed organically without machines. Today, Josef’s son Georg helps Josef in the cellar and is expected to step in as manager and winemaker when his father retires.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 7.5 ha

Bruck: soil is slate, gneiss, sandstone; southwest-facing; planted to Riesling exclusively
Schön: soil is slate and geniss; planted to Grüner Veltliner
Tausendeimerberg: primarily gneiss soil; planted to Riesling and a small section of Grüner Veltliner
Loibner Vision: Loibner’s ‘Clos’ in the vineyard Oberhauser; planted to Riesling
Spitzer Graben: located on the outer edge of the Wachau; planted to Grüner Veltliner and Riesling used in Federspiel wines
Wachauer Weingärten: Grüner Veltliner, Riesling, Chardonnay, Muskateller, and Sauvignon Blanc sourced from vineyards near the Danube River between Weissenkirchen and Loiben.
Average Total Production: 4,200 cases

Top Wines Produced:

Grüner Veltliner Federspiel Terrassen Spitzergraben
Grüner Veltliner Federspiel Schön
Grüner Veltliner Smaragd Tausendeimerberg
Grüner Veltliner Smaragd Schön
Grüner Veltliner Smaragd Schön Alte Parzellen
Riesling Federspiel Terrassen Spitzergraben
Riesling Federspiel Bruck
Riesling Smaragd Loibner Vision
Riesling Smaragd Bruck
Riesling Smaragd Bruck Alte Parzellen
Style / Vinification Techniques: Vinification includes skin contact and warm fermentation temperatures. The Högls believe wooden barrels upset the complexities of Grüner Veltliner and Riesling and choose to ferment and age their wines entirely in stainless steel.

24

Michael Gindl

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Region of Production: Weinviertel, Austria

Winery Location: Hohenruppersdorf

Year Established: unknown

Summary: Michael Gindl started making wine at his family’s estate in his teenage years and now runs the winery. He has converted his vineyard holdings to biodynamic farming and where he also raises cattle, sheep, and pigs. His winemaking philosophy takes inspiration from his grandfather’s time when wines were made with less intervention in the cellars. His SOL wine is named for the oldest vineyard in Hohenruppersdorf and Michael characterizes “SOL” as representing the soul in his wines. The Buteo Grüner Veltliners are named after the buzzards, or buteos, that act as a natural form of pest control and guard the vineyards.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 10 ha

Average Total Production: unknown

Top Wines Produced:

Grüner Veltliner “little Buteo”
Grüner Veltliner Buteo
Grüner Veltliner Buteo-12
Grüner Veltliner SOL
Style / Vinification Techniques: Grapes are hand harvested and 50% of the harvest is whole-cluster pressed. Wines are fermented by indigenous yeasts and see an average of 4-8 hours of skin maceration. For both fermentation and aging, a mix of stainless steel and large neutral casks are used. Wines spend several months on the lees prior to bottling in late spring of the following year. The wines are not fined or filtered, and the wood casks are made from oak and acacia felled on Gindl’s land. Sulfur additions are minimal.

25

Rainer Wess

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Region of Production: Kremstal/Wachau, Austria

Winery Location: Sandgrube

Year Established: 2003

Summary: Namesake Rainer Wess founded the Rainer Wess estate in 2003 after working as the director of Domäne Wachau for several years. Rainer had to buy fruit prior to purchasing vineyard parcels in Loibenberg and Stein. Today the family owns and sources fruit in equal proportions—about 7-8 ha each. In 2009, Rainer Wess purchased and renovated a 300-year-old cellar that could operate as a gravity-flow winery. Farming is sustainable and organic, but Rainer is not seeking certification. The winery produces Grüner Veltliner and Riesling exclusively. The wines are known for their clean style, showing no botrytis unless released as Auslese or TBA.

Principal Vineyard Holdings: 8 ha owned, 7 ha purchased

Loibner Loibenberg: Soil is rocky "gföhler gneiss"
Steiner Pfaffenberg
Steiner Kögl: soil is slate
Stein: soil is slate and weathered schist with a higher proportion of lime; planted to Riesling
Kremsleithen: soil is slate; planted to Riesling
Holzgasse: soil is primarily deep layers of loess
Kerschbaum: soil is loess
Weinzierlberg: sandy soil on gneiss
Kremser Gebling: soil is loess over gravel conglomerates
Sandgrube
Average Total Production: unknown

Top Wines Produced:

Grüner Veltliner Kremstaler
Grüner Veltliner Wachauer
Grüner Veltliner Stein-Und-Krems
Grüner Veltliner Pfaffenberg
Riesling Wachauer
Riesling Loibner Loibenberg
Riesling Stein-Und-Krems
Riesling Pfaffenberg
Style / Vinification Techniques: Rainer does not shy away from skin contact, allowing maceration during the slow filling of the press for whole cluster pressing. The juice then settles naturally in 300-liter stainless steel tanks prior to fermentation. After fermentation, the wines are racked from gross lees and allowed to rest on their fine lees until bottling.