Autacoids Flashcards Preview

Pharmacology > Autacoids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autacoids Deck (29):
1

Histamine

Target: H1 in endothelium, smooth muscle and nerve endings; H2 in gastric mucosa, cardiac muscle and immune cells

2

Epinephrine

Physiologic antagonist of Histamine

3

Cromolyn

Histamine release inhibitor
Action: reduce mast cell degranulation when it is immunologically induced
*β2 agonists are also capable of reducing Histamine release

4

First Generation H1 Receptor Antagonists

Chlorpheniramine, Cyclizine, Diphenhydramine, Dimenhydrinate, Hydroxyzine, Meclizine, Promethazine
*sedative properties d/t CNS effects are use to tx insomnia

5

Second Generation H1 Receptor Antagonists

Fexofenadine, Loratadine, Cetirizine
*fewer CNS effects bc they are less lipophilic and are substrates of P-glycoprotein

6

Serotonin

Target: 5-HT3 receptor is only monoamine neurotransmitter receptor known to function as ligand-gated ion channel (the other 6 are G-protein coupled)

7

Sumatriptan

5-HT 1D/1B receptor agonist
Use: first line therapy for acute severe migraine attacks
SE: coronary vasospasm (contraindicated w/ CAD or angina)

8

Metoclopramide

5-HT4 receptor agonist
Action: prokinetic agent
SE: somnolence, nervousness, dysgenic rxn

9

Cisapride

5-HT4 receptor agonist
Action: prokinetic agent, prolonged QT interval
SE: cardiac adverse effects so it is NO LONGER available in US

10

Cyproheptadine

5-HT2 receptor antagonist
Use: allergic rhinitis, vasomotor rhinitis, tx/management of Serotonin Syndrome

11

Ondansteron

5-HT3 receptor antagonist
Use: anti-emetic, tx N/V in chemotherapy pt

12

Dinoprostone

PGE2 analog
Use: ripen cervix at/near term, abortifacient

13

Misoprostol

PGE1 analog
Use: present ulcers in pt taking high dose NSAIDs
Off label uses: ripen cervix at/near term, management of postpartum hemorrhage

14

Alprostadil

PGE1
Use: maintain latency of ductus arteriosus, impotence

15

Prostacyclin

Prostacyclin aka PGI2 - synthesized by vascular endothelium (by COX) as anticoagulant via vasodilation and inhibition of platelet aggregation

16

Latanoprost

PGF2α derivative
Use: open-angle glaucoma

17

Zileuton

5-LOX inhibitor

18

Zafirlukast

Antagonist of LTD4 receptor

19

Montelukast

Antagonist of LTD4 receptor

20

H2 Receptor Antagonists

Cimetidine, Ranitidine, Famotidine, Nizatidine

20

H2 Receptor Antagonist Uses

Tx peptic ulcers, acute stress ulcers, and prevent/tx heart-burn
(Action: inhibition of gastric acid secretion)

20

Ergot Alkaloids

Ergotamine, Dihydroergotamine, Bromocriptine, Cabergoline, Ergonovine, Methylergonovine
*produced by fungus that infects grain

21

Ergotamine or Dihydroergotamine Use?

Migraine

22

Bromocriptine and Cabergoline Use?

Hyperprolactinemia from prolactinoma

23

Ergonovine or Methylergonovine Use?

Postpartum hemorrhage tx if Oxytocin is ineffective

24

Ergonovine Use

Dx of variant angina bc it provokes coronary artery vasospasm

25

Ergot Alkaloid SEs

Vasospasm, CI in pregnancy and pts w/ CAD, HTN, impaired renal or hepatic function

26

Epoprostenol

PGI2
Use: pulmonary HTN, prevent platelet aggregation in dialysis machines

27

Cimetidine

SE: inhibits CYP450, gynecomastia, reduced sperm count in men, galactorrhea in women