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Flashcards in autism Deck (15):

How is autism identified

through behavioral observation, parent report, and review of history


symptoms of autism

qualitative impairments in: (1) reciprocal social-communication and (2) repetitive behaviors and restricted interests. b. Symptoms are usually evident before the age of 3 years, but symptoms present differently at different ages and levels of intellectual functioning


Etiology of ASD

The etiology of ASD is not yet known; however, most scientists believe that an interaction between genetic vulnerabilities and environmental exposures is probably involved in the pathogenesis of ASD.


Prevalance of ASD

Approximately 1 in 110 children have an ASD- majority are male and occurs across cultures at apparently similar rates (although there are variations on how the behaviors present)


Treatment of ASD

Educational, behavioral and psychological. Families are usually actively involved in treatments. Early intervention can improve developmental functioning and quality of life


ASD and other disorders

Most individuals with ASD face one or more additional challenges, including learning disabilities, psychiatric conditions, difficulties with sleeping and eating, regulating behaviors, and difficulty attending in an appropriate way. Some have immune system irregularities, endocrine disorders, neurological conditions (such as seizures), and gastrointestinal disorders


Three core areas of development central to ASD

impairments in social reciprocity, lack of communicative competence and repetitive activities/restricted interests


components of impaired social reciprocity

Appearing aloof or in their own world. Avoid social interaction with unfamiliar people, may appear awkward


components of lack of communicative competence in ASD

This core category includes delayed or disordered speech, integration of nonverbal behaviors into attempts to communicate (such as using a coordinated eye gaze, pairing gestures with sounds, using an appropriate voice tone and maintaining an appropriate proximity to others when communicating), as well as communicating for a range of social purposes (such as maintaining a conversation, asking for assistance, sharing observations and information).


Subtypes in Autism

intellectual functioning, social style, language capacity, severity, onset, regressive vs non regressive, form of repetitive behavior, sensory reactivity, stress reactivity, co-occuring conditions


List co-occuring conditions

mitochondrial disorder, autoimmune disorder, anxiety, psychosis, ADD/ADHD, mood disorder, dyspraxia


Social and communicative symptoms observed in the first 12 months of ASD

• Dysynchrony with caregiver • Lack of social smile
• Delayed response to name and poor social orienting • Fewer vocalizations • Poor vocal imitation


Red Flags for Autism in Children Under 3

Lack of appropriate gaze, Lack of warm, joyful expressions with directed gaze, Lack of sharing interest or enjoyment, Lack of response to name when called, Lack of coordination of gaze, facial expression, gestures and sounds


ASD symptoms in school age children

Poor social reciprocity, Impaired social-emotional understanding, Difficulty modulating and integrating nonverbal behaviors, If verbal, language is often disordered (overly literal, tangential
or associative, difficulty organizing thoughts in a way listener easily understands), Restricted/repetitive play, Insistence on sameness


ASD symptoms in older children and adults

improved but limited reciprocity, impaired gestures, unusual prosody, vulnerable/naïve, mood/anxiety