Autonomic Drugs Flashcards Preview

Foundations of Disease and Therapy > Autonomic Drugs > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autonomic Drugs Deck (36):
1

Antidote for Atropine Overdose

Physostigmine 

2

Symptoms of Muscarinic Agonist Overdose 

DUMBBELS (or SLUDGE)

  1. Diarrhea
  2. Urination
  3. Miosis
  4. Bradycardia
  5. Brohchosecretions
  6. Emesis (vomiting/nausea)
  7. Lacrimation
  8. Salivation 

3

Methacholine

"Marathon Challenge"

  • Choline Ester
  • Muscarinic Agonist
  • Induces Bronchospasms for Asthma Challenge Test 

4

M3 Receptor Locations

Smooth Muscle, Exocrine Glands, Vascular Endothelium 

5

Verenicline

"1-800-Very-Clean"

  • Partial Nicotinic Agonist 
  • Used to treat nicotine addiction 

6

Carbachol

"Closed hoodie to protect from Carbon fumes from Nicotine smoker"

  • Choline Ester
  • Muscarinic and Nicotinic agonist
  • Used to induce miosis (pupil constriction) during ocular surgery 

7

Succinylcholine

  • Depolarizing Muscle Relaxer
  • Tightly binds to Nicotinic receptor at Neuromuscular Junction and causes deplolarization and depletion of all calcium 
  • Use to paralyze muscles in short surgeries 

8

Botox

  • Destroys Ach vesicles and prevents release at Neuromuscular Junction
  • Causes flacid paralysis 

9

Alpha-Latrotoxin

  • Black widow venom
  • Causes massive release of Ach
  • Causes depolarizing paralysis 

10

Diazinon

  • Organophosphate that Irreversibly Binds Acetylcholinesterase
  • Nerve gas
  • Will kill you

11

Pilocarpine

"Pile-of-Carp-ine"

  • Alkaloid
  • Muscarinic Agonist
  • Used to treat glaucoma and Sjorgeren's Syndrome 

12

Antidote for Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor Overdose 

Atropine 

13

Pyridostigmine

  • Carbamate Acytocholinesterase Inhibitor that does not penetrate CNS
  • Treatment for Myasthenia Gravis
  • Antidote to Curare Overdose 
  • Can treat glaucoma 

14

Acytocholinesterase Inhibitor Overdose

DUMBBELS + Muscle Paralysis/Cramping/Fasiculations

 

15

Ipratropium

"Cat-ipra-tro-pillar"

  • Synthetic Muscarinic Antagonist
  • Quarternary - does not get into CNS
  • Causes pupil dilation, increases HR, etc 

16

Treatment for Organophosphate Poisioning

2-Pralidozime (2-PAM)

Atropine (for CNS)

 

17

Antidote for Tubocurarine Overdose

Neostigmine or Pyridostigmine (Acetocholinesterase Inhibitor)

18

Antidote to Malignant Hyperthermia

Dantrolene 

19

Trimethaphan 

  • Blocks Ganglionic Nicotinic Receptor  
  • Used to rapidly decrease blood pressure by inhibiting sympathetics (you inhibit parasympathetics too, but VSM has sympathetic tone) 

20

Antidote for Acetocholinesterase Inhibitor Overdose

Atropine

21

Scopolamine

"Walrus with Scope"

  • Alkaloid Muscarinic Antagonist
  • Treats motion sickness
  • Causes pupil dilation

22

Potential problems with Succinylcholine

Hyperkalemia and Malignant Hyperthermia 

23

Atropine

  • Alkaloid - can get into CNS
  • Muscarinic Antagonist 
  • Reduces vagal tone (increase HR)
  • Can be used to stop heart block
  • Treat diarrhea
  • Dilates pupil 

24

Effects of Stimulating Nicotinic Receptors

  1. Skeletal Muscle Contraction
  2. Epinephrine secretion from Adrenal Glands
  3. Action Potentials in Post-Synaptic Autonomic Ganglia 

25

Pralidozime

Binds to organophosphate and removes it from Acetylcholinesterase

Antidote to Organophosphate poisioning 

26

Explain Process of Nitric Oxide Mediated Vasodilation

M3 Receptors on Vascular Endothelium trigger Calcium influx, which stimulates NO-Synthase to produce Nitric Oxide from Arginine. 

Nitric Oxide causes vasodilation in nearby smooth muscle by stimulating an increase in cGMP 

cGMP is degraded by Phosphodiesterase

PDE5 is the main Phosphodiesterase in the penis, and it can be inhibited with Sildenafil to maintain erections

27

Symptoms of Muscarinic Antagonist Overdose

  • "Dry as a Bone" - dry skin, eyes, mouth 
  • "Red as a Beet" - vasodilation in skin
  • "Hot as a Hare" - no sweating 
  • "Blind as a Bat" - no accomidation, increased ocular pressure
  • "Mad as a Hatter" - seizure, coma

28

M1 Receptor Locations

Brain, Enteric Nervous System (gut)

29

Neostigmine

  • Carbamate Acytocholinesterase Inhibitor that does not penetrate CNS
  • Treatment for Myasthenia Gravis
  • Antidote to Curare Overdose 
  • Can treat glaucoma 

30

Cevimeline

  • Synthetic Muscarinic Agonist
  • Used to treat Sjorgren's Syndrome 

31

M2 Receptor Locations

Heart (SA and AV Nodes, Atrium)

32

Cure for Succinylcholine Overdose

None; wait it out and put patient on ventilator 

33

Edrophonium

"Phone booth testing for Myasthenia Gravis"

  • Short-acting Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor
  • Used to diagnose Myasthenia Gravis 

34

Tubocurarine

"Curare Crayons blocking the end-plate socket"

  • Competitive blocker of the Neuromuscular Junction
  • Quarternary compound 
  • Binds nicotinic receptors and leaves muscles in flacid state
  • Long acting, used to paralyze muscles during surgery 

35

Bethanechol

"Beth holding bladder firehose and colon cement mixer"

  • Choline Ester 
  • Muscarinic Agonist
  • Treatment for Urinary Retention or used to get GI tract moving again after surgery

36

Physostigmine

  • Carbamate Acytocholinesterase Inhibitor that rapidly penetrates CNS
  • Treatment for Atropine Poisioning 
  • Treats Alzheimer's and Dementia
  • Can treat glaucoma