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Foundations of Disease and Therapy > Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Cancer Deck (104):
1

Vimentin (marker)

mesencyme

2

Burkitt's Lymphoma (cause)

caused by translocation t(8;14)

Active transcription of c-MYC (growth factor)

3

cancer of lymphoid cells

malignant lymphoma 

4

cancer of mesenchymal origin

sarcoma 

5

Chromogranin (marker)

neuroendocrine cells (small cell carcinoma of lung and carcinoid tumors) 

6

Where do most mutation in p53 occur?

DNA-Binding Domain

Prevents transcription of Bax, Bak, and Bad

7

colloid (mucinous) carcinoma 

excessive mucin is produced by tumor cells (breast, colon)

8

Rb Protein

Tumor Suppressor that regulates G1--> S Phase

sequesters E2F

Releases E2F when phosphorylated by Cyclin D/CDK complex 

 

9

benign tumor of nerves

neurofibroma 

10

Cohesins

hold sister chromatids together

Aberation will result in inability for sister chromatids to associate in prophase 

11

Nitrosamine

gastric cancer 

12

Metastasis to brain

common from cancer of lung, breast, and kidney

13

Parenchyma

Functional cells of an organ or neoplasm

14

benign tumor of meninges

meningioma

15

Large Scale Genomic Instability 

Presence of alterations in chromosome number (aneuploidy), or chromosome structure (rearrangements, breakages, genetic insertions/deletions, etc) 

This can result from changes and alterations in expression level of proteins important for regulating normal mitotic progression 

16

Non-neoplastic, reversible forms of cell proliferation

Hyperplasia, Metaplasia, and Dysplasia (variation in size and shape of cells with loss of orientation). Normal mitosis

17

Margin of Benign vs Malignant

Benign: smooth, encapsulated, non-invasive

Malignant: irregular margin, no capsule, invasive

18

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (cause)

Caused by translocation t(9;22) - Philaedelphia Chromosome 

Forms Bcr-Abl Fusion Protein 

Abl is a kinase that activates unrestricted growth 

Gleevec (imatinib) is a drug that inhibits kinase activity of Bcr-Abl

19

Tumor/Cancer of Placental epithelium 

Benign: Hydatiform mole

Malignant: Choriocarcinoma

20

Bcl-2

(function, disease-association)

Sequesters Cytochrome C in mitochondria and prevents activation of caspases 

Amplification due to t(14,18) transposition resluts in follicular lymphoma because B cells cannot commit apoptosis during somatic hypermutation 

 

21

Staging of Tumor

Based on size, extent of spread to lymph nodes, and absence or presence of metastasis 

T - tumor size

N - lymph node involvement 

M - metastasis 

Staging of a tumor is better correlated with prognosis than Grading 

22

benign tumor of cartilage

chondroma

23

Nuclei of Benign vs Metastatic cells

Benign: normal nuclei (N/C ratio = 1:6)

Metastatic: large, hypercromatic (N/C ratio = 1:1)

24

oat cell (small cell) carcinoma

undifferentiated carcinoma of neuroendocrine origin, usually in lung. Cells are lymphocyte-like on microscopy 

25

Metastasis to bone

Common from cancer of prostate, lung, breast, thyroid, and kidney 

26

papilloma

benign tumor arising from an epithelial surface that shows finger-like projections

27

medullary carcinoma

soft consistency of the tumor is due to very little connective tissue stroma 

28

Clonality of Tumors

Most tumors and neoplasms arise from monoclonal transformations 

In some cases, such as familial colonic polyposis, tumors can be of polyclonal origin 

29

Grading of Tumors

Determines aggressiveness and degree of anaplasia 

5 grades; higher grade means less differentiated and worse prognosis 

30

benign tumor of fibrous tissue and glands

fibroadenoma

31

Most common sites of metastatic tumor

Lung adn Liver

32

Biologic hallmarks of cancer

invasion and metastasis 

33

benign tumor of smooth muscle

Leiomyoma

34

Lymphatic spread

Preferred route of spread in most carcinomas 

35

Polycyclic Hydrocarbons 

Benzanthracene found in cigarette smoke - associated with lung cancer

Also produced by broiling and smoking meats/fish

36

Arsenic

associated with skin cancer

37

Paraneoplastic Syndrome: Fever of Unknown Origin 

Lymphoma (especially Hodgkin's), renal carcinoma, osteogenic sarcoma 

38

cancer of synovium

synovial sarcoma

39

Neoplasm

abnormal growth characterized by uncontrolled, excessive, purposeless, and almost autonomous proliferation of cells resulting in formation of a mass. Irreversible

40

Anaplasia

Lack of differentiation characterized by: nuclear pleomorphism (variation in size and shape), hyper-chromatic nuclei, large nucleoli, high mitotic rate, and high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio

41

mucinous cystadenoma

contains mucin

42

4 Ways to Acitvate Oncogenes (and examples)

  1. Point mutation creating a "constitutively active" form of protein (RAS)
  2. Amplification: Increase in number of copies of gene (HER2)
  3. Increase in amount of protein present by moving gene to active promoter (Burkitt, Mantle Cell, Follicular)
  4. Translocation creating fusion protein  (Bcr-Abl)

43

HER2

(what it does, what can go wrong, what treats it)

HER2 is a Tyrosine Kinase receptor

When activated, it stimulates a cascade that favors cell cycle progression 

Some people have extra copies of this gene, so its expression is amplified, making too many receptors present on the outside of the cell 

Highly associated with development of Breast Cancer 

Trastuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets this receptor

44

Krukenberg tumor

ovarian metastatic tumor, usually from a gastric adenocarcinoma

45

clear cell carcinoma

aka renal cell carcinoma; neoplastic cells contain clear cytoplasm 

46

Paraneoplastic Syndrome: Clubbing of fingers

lung cancer 

47

Scirrhous (desmoplastic) carcinoma

marked fibrotic stroma that makes tumor stony hard

48

Hematogenous Spread

Dominant spreading route for Sarcomas 

Carcinomas that spread via this route:

  1. Renal Cell Carcinoma
  2. Hepatocellular carcinoma
  3. Follicular Carcinoma of the Thyroid
  4. Choriocarcinoma 

49

RAS

proto-oncogene that becomes an oncogene after a point mutation that leaves it constitutively activated 

Active form is RAS-GTP 

Mutation asociated with carcinomas, melanoma, and lymphoma

50

Paraneoplastic Syndrome:  Myasthenia

thymoma 

51

Paraneoplastic Syndrome: Cushing's Syndrome

small cell carcinoma of lung; due to ACTH

52

Mantle Cell Lymphoma

Occurs due to amplification of Cyclin D due to transposition t(11,14) 

This causes the cell to activate Rb pathway and pass the G1/S checkpoint 

53

Benign tumors remain benign and do not undergo malignancy. The only exception is:

Adenocarcinomas of colon usually result from Ademomas

54

Paraneoplastic Syndromes

Symptom complexes other than cachexia in cancer patients that cannot be explained by local and distant spread of the tumor or by production of hormones indigenous to the tissue

55

Paraneoplastic Syndrome: Hypercalcemia

squamous cell carcinoma of lung, adenocarcinoma of breast, and renal cell carcinoma; due to PTH 

56

Cancer of epithelial origin

carcinoma

57

Paraneoplastic Syndrome: Carcinoid Syndrome (seratonin, histamin, bradykinin)

Brochial carcinoid metastatic to liver 

58

Wilm's Tumor

Nephroblastoma; childhood malignant tumor of kidney arising from renal blastoma showing mixed embryonal tubular structures and sarcomatoid stroma 

Caused by deletion of gene on Chromosome 11

59

Differentiation

The degree to which the tumor cells exhibit morphologic and functional resemblance to comparable normal cells

60

Names for neoplasm/cancer of melanocytes

Benign: Nevus

Malignant: Melanoma 

61

Neoplastic, irreversible forms of cell proliferation

Anaplasia - greater degree of pleomorphism than dysplasia, varying degrees of differentiation. Abnormal mitosis

62

Paraneoplastic Syndrome: Deep Vein Thrombosis, thrombophlebitis

pancreatic cancer, GI tract cancer, lung cancer 

63

names for tumor/cancer of mesothelium

benign mesothelioma 

malignant mesothelioma 

64

Cystadenoma

benign epithelial tumor containing fluid or semisolid material 

65

p53

Major tumor suppressor; almost all cancers have a mutation in this pathway 

Regulates Apoptosis and DNA Repair via activation of Caspases

Many points on this pathway can cause loss of this function (Amplification of Mdm2, mutated p53, Amplification of Bcl-2)

66

Hamartoma

localized overgrowth of mature cells normally found in an organ. DIsorganize mature cells produce a mass that looks like a tumor, but is benign. Common in lung and liver 

67

Cancer of neuroglial cells

Malignant Glioma

68

Desmoplasia

Exuberant production of collagenous stroma induced by the tumor cells

69

Condensins

compact chromosomes

aberation will alter ability for chromosomes to properly condense in prophase 

70

Benign tumor of striated muscle

rhabdomyoma

71

benign tissue of fibrous tissue and fat

fibrolipoma

72

Vinyl chloride

Used to make PVC pipes; causes hemangiosarcoma of liver 

73

signet-ring cell carcinoma

adenocarcinoma where malignant cells look like signet rings microscipically. Usually in stomach 

74

Benign tumor of fibrous tissue

fibroma 

75

Ways cancers can spread

  1. lymphatics
  2. hematogenous
  3. seeding through body cavities and surfaces 

76

Blood level is high in trophoblastic (hydatidiformmole, chorionic carcinoma) and germ cell tumors

Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (HCG)

77

Asbestos

associated with lung cancer and mesothelioma 

78

Paraneoplastic Syndrome: Hypoglycemia

Sarcomas, liver cancer; due to insulin 

79

Neuroblastoma (cause)

Caused by gene amplification of N-Myc 

80

Desmin (marker)

muscle

81

Cancer of liver

Hepatoma or Hepatocellular Carcinoma 

82

Why do tumors grow faster than surrounding cells? 

The cells themselves do not divide faster; the tumor grows quickly because a greater percentage of cells are actively dividing and fewer cells are committing apoptosis 

83

Describe steps of metastasis

  1. Downregulation of E-cadhedrin leads to disassociation from surrounding cels 
  2. Tumor cells bind to laminin and destroy basement membrane 
  3. Proteolytic enzymes (collagenase) lyse the Type IV collegen in matrix
  4. Cells attach to fibronectin in ECM and spread locally 
  5. Tumor cells migrate

84

cancer of neuroendocrine cells 

carcinoid tumor 

85

Heavy metal inhalation

associated with lung cancer 

86

Cancer of plasma cells

Multiple Myeloma 

87

polyp

benign epithelial tumor prodtruding from epithelial surface

88

Paraneoplastic Syndrome: Hyponatremia

small cell carcinoma of lung; due to ADH

89

Blood level is high in prostate cancer

Psostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP), Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)

90

Cachexia

loss of body fat, lean body mass, weakness, anorexia, and anemia

Increased metabolism of all nutrients - may involve Cachectin 

91

cancer of hemopoietic cells of bone marrow 

Leukemia

92

Normally produced by embryonal gut, pancreas, liver.

Serum level may be high in colorectal, pancreatic, liver, and gastric cancers.

Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA)

93

UV Rays

squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma 

94

Aromatic Amines and azo dyes: beta-napthalamine

causes bladder cancer among workers with aniline dye and rubber industry 

95

Keratin (marker)

Epithelium

96

Retinoblastoma (cause)

Caused by deletion of Rb gene on chromosome 13

Rb is a tumor suppressor 

97

seruos cystadenoma

contains serous fluid

98

Encapsulation

Peripheral, circumferential fibrous connective tissue rim around benign tumors

99

Benign tumor of glandular epithelium

Adenoma

100

Teratoma

benign tumor composed of more than one germ layer, usually all three. Totipotential cells of testis or overy can differentiate along various germ lines 

101

Normally produced by yolk sac and fetal liver. Blood level goes up in cancer of liver and germ cell tumor of testis.

Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)

102

When do symptoms from a tumor first occur

after 30 divisions 

103

Paraneoplastic Syndrome: Acanthosis nigricans (dark patches of skin)

gastrointestinal cancer 

104

Stroma

Supporting connective tissue and blood vessels