Autonomic Nervous System 2 (session 8) Flashcards Preview

Semester 1-ICPP > Autonomic Nervous System 2 (session 8) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autonomic Nervous System 2 (session 8) Deck (17):
1

What is the equation for ACh synthesis and which enzyme catalyses the reaction?

Acetyl CoA + choline -> ACh + coenzyme A

Catalyses by choline acetyltransferase (CAT)

2

What is the equation for ACh degradation and which enzyme catalyses the reaction?

ACh -> acetate + choline

(Acetyl)cholinesterase (AChE)

3

Which ganglion-blocking drug is used in hypertensive emergencies and to produce controlled hypotension during surgery?

Trimethaphan

4

Which mAChR antagonist (M3) is used to treat overactive bladder and what is its main side effect?

Tolterodine
Dry mouth

5

Which AChE inhibitor is used to treat myasthenia gravis?

Pyridostigmine

6

Which AChE inhibitor is used to treat Alzheimer's disease?

Donepezil

7

Why is the usage of cholinergic drugs limited?

Unwanted side-effects due to lack of selectivity

8

What side-effects is a non-selective muscarinic ACh receptor agonist likely to cause?

Decreased heart rate and cardiac output
Increased bronchoconstriciton and peristalsis
Increased sweating and salivation

9

What does SLUDGE stand for (parasympathetic nervous system)?

Salivation
Lacrimation
Urination
Defecation
GI upset (diarrhoea)
Emesis (vomiting)

10

In which cases is SLUDGE encountered?

Drug overdose
Ingestion of magic mushrooms
Exposure to organophosphorous insecticides or nerve gases

11

What are the symptoms of SLUDGE primarily due to?

Chronic (over-) stimulation of mAChR in organs and muscles innervated by parasympathetic nervous system

12

What can treat SLUDGE? (2)

Atropine
Pralidoxime

13

Which mAChR antagonists are used to treat asthma and COPD?

Ipratropium
Tiotropium

14

How are NA actions terminated?

By re-uptake into the pre-synaptic terminal by a Na+ dependent, high affinity symport transporter.
NA not re-captured by uptake 1 ^ is taken up by a lower affinity, non-neuronal mechanism

15

Within the pre-synaptic terminal, NA not taken up into vesicles is susceptible to metabolism by which two enzymes?

Monoamine oxidase (MAO)
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT)

16

Beta2-adrenoceptor-selective agonists are used in asthma to reverse what? And give an example of the beta2-adrenoceptor-selective agonist used in asthma

Bronchoconstriction
Salbutamol

17

Which type of drugs are used to treat hypertension?

Alpha1 (eg doxazosin) and beta1-adrenoceptor-selective antagonists (eg atenolol)