Autonomic Nervous System 1 (session 8) Flashcards Preview

Semester 1-ICPP > Autonomic Nervous System 1 (session 8) > Flashcards

Flashcards in Autonomic Nervous System 1 (session 8) Deck (28):
1

True or false: ANS controls voluntary functions

FALSE - controls involuntary functions

2

What are the two divisions of the ANS?

Sympathetic
Parasympathetic

3

What are the five anatomical divisions of the brain stem and spinal cord?

Medullary
Cranial
Thoracic
Lumber
Sacral

4

What does the vagus nerve supply?

Heart, lungs and upper digestive tract

5

Where do the parasympathetic nerves originate?

Lateral horn of the medulla

6

Where do the sympathetic nerves originate?

Lateral horn of the lumbar and thoracic spinal cord

7

Which has long myelinated preganglionic fibres, parasympathetic or sympathetic nerves?

Parasympathetic

8

Which has long unmyelinated postganglionic fibres, sympathetic or parasympathetic nerves?

Sympathetic

9

True or false: the ganglia of the parasympathetic nerves are located within the innervated tissues

TRUE

10

What are the two principal neurotransmitters in the ANS?

Acetylcholine (ACh)
Noradrenaline (NA)

11

True or false: all pre-ganglionic neurones are cholinergic

TRUE (use ACh as their neurotransmitter)

12

Complete the sentence:

Parasympathetic and sympathetic pre-ganglionic release of ACh results in the activation of post-ganglionic __________ ACh receptors

Nicotinic

13

What are nicotinic ACh receptors?

Ligand-gated ion channels

14

True or false: parasympathetic post-ganglionic neurones are also cholinergic

TRUE

15

Complete the sentence:

Parasympathetic post-ganglionic neurones release ACh which acts on ____________ ACh receptors in the _________ tissue

Muscarinic
Effector

16

What are muscarinic ACh receptors?

GPCRs (M1-M5)

17

Complete the sentence:

Most sympathetic post-ganglionic neurones are _____________ and use _______________ as the principal neurotransmitter

Noradrenergic
Noradrenaline

18

Which two major classes of adrenoceptors can NA interact with?

Alpha (1 and 2)
Beta (1, 2 and 3)

19

True or false: all muscarinic ACh receptors and adrenoceptors are GPCRs

TRUE

20

Which sympathetic post-ganglionic neurones are cholinergic, not adrenergic?

Specialised neurones such as those innervating sweat glands, hair follicles

21

What are NANC transmitters?

Non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic transmitters

22

True or false: NANC transmitters can be co-released with NA only

FALSE - with ACh also

23

Give examples of NANC transmitters (4)

ATP
Nitric oxide (NO)
5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)
Neuropeptides (eg VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide), substance P)

24

How are sympathetic postganglionic neurones in the adrenal glands different?

They differentiate to form neurosecretory chromaffin cells (release adrenaline into the bloodstream)

25

What does the parasympathetic release of ACh cause in the heart and which muscarinic receptor is stimulated?

Bradycardia (slow heart action)
Reduced cardiac conduction velocity
M2 MAChR

26

What does the parasympathetic release of ACh cause in smooth muscle in the lungs and which MAChR is stimulated?

Bronchial contraction
M3

27

What does the sympathetic release of noradrenaline cause in the heart and which adrenoceptor is stimulated?

Tachycardia
Positive inotropy
Beta-1

28

What is the umbrella term for malfunctions of the ANS?

Dysautonomia