Flashcards in Autonomic Nervous System Deck (21)
What is the function of the ANS?
Responsible for functions that are not under conscious awareness
List 3 structures that the ANS innervates to either excite or inhibit.
What 2 systems make up the ANS?
Sympathetic and Parasympathetic systems
Autonomic pathways consist of _____ that synapse in an autonomic ganglion.
Preganglionic and postganglionic neurons
What are the 2 biggest differences between the somatic and autonomic nervous systems?
Somatic consists of a single neuron from the CNS to the effector organ; STIMULATORY effect
ANS consists of a 2 chain neuron from the CNS to the effector organs; STIMULATORY AND INHIBITORY effects
What neurotransmitter is released from the preganglionic neuron to bind onto the postganglionic neuron in both ANS (both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems)?
_____ is the terminal effector neurotransmitter of the sympathetic system.
_____ is the terminal effector neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic system.
The preganglionic fibers in the sympathetic system are ____ , but _____ in the parasympathetic system.
Short in sympathetic
Long in parasympathetic
Sympathetic fibers originate from the _____ area.
Parasympathetic fibers originate from the ____ and ____ areas.
_____ receptors are found in the motor end plate/adrenal medulla.
_____ receptors are found in the viscera.
List the 8 actions that take place during the flight or fight response.
1. Pupils dilate
2. Increased heart rate
3. Increased contractility
4. Bronchiole dilation
5. GI tract shuts down (walls relax and sphincters contract)
6. Bladder walls relax and its sphincter contracts
7. Blood shunted from GI and skin to the muscles
8. Increased gluconeogenesis
List 2 mechanisms of action of parasympathomimetic agents.
1. Cholinergic agonists (cholinomimetics): direct acting on the Ach receptor
2. Cholinesterase Inhibitors: indirect acting, block the enzyme acetylcholinesterase
List 5 ADRs associated with parasympathomimetic agents.
1. increased sweating
2. Bronchial constriction
3. Abdominal cramps
4. Bradycardia and decreased cardiac output
5. Urinary incontinence puts patient at risk for integumentary issues
What is the mechanism of action for anticholinergic drugs?
Block the muscarinic receptors
List 7 ADRs associated with anticholinergic drugs?
1. Dry mouth
2. Blurred vision
3. Urinary retention
6. Decreased sweating
What is the mechanism of action for adrenergic agonists?
Bind to adrenergic receptors; mimic effects of NE or Epi
List 2 ADRs associated with the use of adrenergic agents.