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Flashcards in Autonomic Nervous System Deck (21)
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1

What is the function of the ANS?

Responsible for functions that are not under conscious awareness

2

List 3 structures that the ANS innervates to either excite or inhibit.

Smooth muscle
Cardiac muscle
Glands

3

What 2 systems make up the ANS?

Sympathetic and Parasympathetic systems

4

Autonomic pathways consist of _____ that synapse in an autonomic ganglion.

two neurons

Preganglionic and postganglionic neurons

5

What are the 2 biggest differences between the somatic and autonomic nervous systems?

Somatic consists of a single neuron from the CNS to the effector organ; STIMULATORY effect

ANS consists of a 2 chain neuron from the CNS to the effector organs; STIMULATORY AND INHIBITORY effects

6

What neurotransmitter is released from the preganglionic neuron to bind onto the postganglionic neuron in both ANS (both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems)?

Acetylcholine

7

_____ is the terminal effector neurotransmitter of the sympathetic system.

Norepinephrine

8

_____ is the terminal effector neurotransmitter of the parasympathetic system.

Acetylcholine

9

The preganglionic fibers in the sympathetic system are ____ , but _____ in the parasympathetic system.

Short in sympathetic

Long in parasympathetic

10

Sympathetic fibers originate from the _____ area.

Thoracolumbar area

11

Parasympathetic fibers originate from the ____ and ____ areas.

Cranial
Sacral

12

_____ receptors are found in the motor end plate/adrenal medulla.

Nicotinic receptors

13

_____ receptors are found in the viscera.

Muscarinic

14

List the 8 actions that take place during the flight or fight response.

1. Pupils dilate
2. Increased heart rate
3. Increased contractility
4. Bronchiole dilation
5. GI tract shuts down (walls relax and sphincters contract)
6. Bladder walls relax and its sphincter contracts
7. Blood shunted from GI and skin to the muscles
8. Increased gluconeogenesis

15

List 2 mechanisms of action of parasympathomimetic agents.

1. Cholinergic agonists (cholinomimetics): direct acting on the Ach receptor

2. Cholinesterase Inhibitors: indirect acting, block the enzyme acetylcholinesterase

16

List 5 ADRs associated with parasympathomimetic agents.

1. increased sweating
2. Bronchial constriction
3. Abdominal cramps
4. Bradycardia and decreased cardiac output
5. Urinary incontinence puts patient at risk for integumentary issues

17

What is the mechanism of action for anticholinergic drugs?

Block the muscarinic receptors

18

List 7 ADRs associated with anticholinergic drugs?

1. Dry mouth
2. Blurred vision
3. Urinary retention
4.Tachycardia
5. Hypertension
6. Decreased sweating
7. Dementia

19

What is the mechanism of action for adrenergic agonists?

Bind to adrenergic receptors; mimic effects of NE or Epi

20

List 2 ADRs associated with the use of adrenergic agents.

Tachycardia
Hypertension

21

List 3 indications for the use of adrenergic agonists (epinephrine).

Anaphylactic shock
Hemostatic agent (I.e novacane)
Cardiac arrest