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Flashcards in Avian Diseases Deck (58):
1

Although birds are typically asymptomatic, what are the main 5 types of clinical signs commonly seen?

Lethargy, inappetance, neurological, regurgitating, weight loss

2

What is the most common fungal disease in captive and wild birds?

Aspergillosis caused bby Aspergillus fumigatus

3

How does a bird contract Aspergillus?

Birds generally inhale the spores

4

True or false: Aspergillosis can be dormant until times of immunosuppression

Truuuuuue

5

Aspergillosis can cause _______ to develop within organ systems

granulomas

6

What are 3 symptoms of Aspergillosis? (There is 6)

- Decreased activity
- Dyspnea
- Changes to song
- PU/PD
- Seizures
- Sudden death

7

Name 1 laboratory finding associated with Aspergillosis (There are 3)

- Heterophilic leukocytosis
- Non-regenerative anemia
- Increase in AST

8

What is the prognosis of Aspergillosis?

Poor in birds

9

Is Aspergillosis zoonotic?

No

10

"Thrush" or "Sour crop" in birds is usually caused by what fungus?

Candida albicans

11

Candida albicans is often found normally in crops of pigeons along with _______

trichomonas

12

What 4 clinical signs are associated with Candidasis?

Lethargy, inappetence, regurgitation, undigested food in feces

13

What is the best test to diagnose Candidasis?

Crop swab

14

Candida mostly effects what 3 parts of the body?

Oropharynx, crop and esophagus

15

Is Candidasis zoonotic?

No

16

The fungus ___________ has an unknown route of transmission and is a large, gram positive organism

Macrorhabdus ornithogaster

17

True or false: Macrorhabdus can resolve itself without treatment

False. If left untreated, will result in death

18

What does Macrorhabdus ornithogaster look like under the microscope?

Filamentous bacteria

19

What are 3 clinical signs associated with Macrorhabdus infection? (There are 6)1

- Lethargy
- Chronic weight loss
- Inability to gain weight
- Regurgitation
- Undigested food in stool
- Ruffled feathers

20

What type of avian disease causes white/yellow plaques in the oral cavity, crop and esophagus?

Trichomoniasis (protozoa)

21

On a wet mount, is it easy or difficult to spot Trichomonas?

Easy - they are motile flagellates

22

What is ABV? What species seems to be resilient to the disease?

Avian Bornavirus - budgies are resilient

23

List 3 ways by which Trichomoniasis can be transmitted

Fecal-oral, mucous membrane, vertical transmission

24

Is ABV zoonotic?

No

25

What is PBFDV and what is the technical virus name?

Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease Virus, also known as circovirus

26

True or false: PBFDV is hard to kill as it is not susceptible to disinfectants and cleaning agents

True

27

If the bird is not suffering, why is it still a concern for them to live with PBFDV?

The virus causes loss of feathers and this means they cannot fly and must keep their weight under control

28

True or false: Some birds can be carriers of PBFDV and never show signs

True

29

What is the most efficient treatment for PBFDV?

There is none, the disease is often fatal

30

Which fatal virus replicates in feathers, skin, liver, spleen, kidneys and cerebellum and primarily effects young Psittacines?

Polyoma virus

31

Polyoma virus is characterized by what 3 subsequent conditions?

- Generalized hemorrhage
- Hepatic necrosis
- Glomerulopathy

32

Is Polyoma typically fatal?

Yassss

33

Adult birds that get sick and die from Polyoma virus often have ___________

concurrent infections such as PBFDV

34

Birds are the natural reservoir host to ______ virus

west nile

35

True or false: Many species of wild birds are effected by west nile virus such as crows, blue jays and prey birds but it is not common in companion birds

True

36

West nile virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and __________

direct contact with infected animals

37

Is west nile virus zoonotic?

Yes (to a degree)

38

What are the 2 main clinical presentations of West Nile in birds?

1. Asymptomatic
2. Neurological signs such as ataxia, seizures

39

Which avian virus comes in both dry and wet forms?

Avian Pox Virus

40

how does the dry form of APV present?

wart-like lesions on skin in areas without feathers

41

how does the wet form of APV present?

plaques in the mouth, throat, trachea and lungs

42

What 3 main ways is APV transmitted?

1. Mosquitoes
2. Direct contact w/ infected bird
3. DIrect contact w/ infected objects (bird feeders)

43

What are 4 main clinical signs of Avian Pox Virus?

Dyspnea, dysphagia, weight loss, lethargy

44

Chlamydiosis is zoonotic and causes _______ in humans

Psittacosis

45

Chlamydiosis mainly effects the ______ system

respiratory

46

True or false: Chlamydiosis in birds is easy diagnosed and DOxycycline is used for treatment

False - it is difficult to diagnose

47

Most bird diseases effect their ______

liver

48

Which avian disease often causes conjunctivitis and other signs of respiratory disease?

Mycoplasma

49

Is Mycoplasma zoonotic?

No

50

How long can Marek's disease survive in soil?

Years

51

Marek's disease is spread through _______ and fomites

feather dander

52

True or false: Diagnosis and treatment of Mycoplasma in birds is easy

False. No treatment, often fatal and diagnosis is often done post-mortem

53

What is ILT?

Infectious Laryngotracheitis

54

Infectious Laryngotracheitis is a type of _____ virus

herpes

55

True or false: Birds with ILT can be seen coughing up blood

True

56

What is the most common route for transmission of ILT?

Aerosol exposure

57

True or false: ILT is not zoonotic

true

58

When birds die of ILT, it is often due to:

Asphyxiation from tracheal occlusion