Flashcards in Avian Diseases Deck (58):
Although birds are typically asymptomatic, what are the main 5 types of clinical signs commonly seen?
Lethargy, inappetance, neurological, regurgitating, weight loss
What is the most common fungal disease in captive and wild birds?
Aspergillosis caused bby Aspergillus fumigatus
How does a bird contract Aspergillus?
Birds generally inhale the spores
True or false: Aspergillosis can be dormant until times of immunosuppression
Aspergillosis can cause _______ to develop within organ systems
What are 3 symptoms of Aspergillosis? (There is 6)
- Decreased activity
- Changes to song
- Sudden death
Name 1 laboratory finding associated with Aspergillosis (There are 3)
- Heterophilic leukocytosis
- Non-regenerative anemia
- Increase in AST
What is the prognosis of Aspergillosis?
Poor in birds
Is Aspergillosis zoonotic?
"Thrush" or "Sour crop" in birds is usually caused by what fungus?
Candida albicans is often found normally in crops of pigeons along with _______
What 4 clinical signs are associated with Candidasis?
Lethargy, inappetence, regurgitation, undigested food in feces
What is the best test to diagnose Candidasis?
Candida mostly effects what 3 parts of the body?
Oropharynx, crop and esophagus
Is Candidasis zoonotic?
The fungus ___________ has an unknown route of transmission and is a large, gram positive organism
True or false: Macrorhabdus can resolve itself without treatment
False. If left untreated, will result in death
What does Macrorhabdus ornithogaster look like under the microscope?
What are 3 clinical signs associated with Macrorhabdus infection? (There are 6)1
- Chronic weight loss
- Inability to gain weight
- Undigested food in stool
- Ruffled feathers
What type of avian disease causes white/yellow plaques in the oral cavity, crop and esophagus?
On a wet mount, is it easy or difficult to spot Trichomonas?
Easy - they are motile flagellates
What is ABV? What species seems to be resilient to the disease?
Avian Bornavirus - budgies are resilient
List 3 ways by which Trichomoniasis can be transmitted
Fecal-oral, mucous membrane, vertical transmission
Is ABV zoonotic?
What is PBFDV and what is the technical virus name?
Psittacine Beak and Feather Disease Virus, also known as circovirus
True or false: PBFDV is hard to kill as it is not susceptible to disinfectants and cleaning agents
If the bird is not suffering, why is it still a concern for them to live with PBFDV?
The virus causes loss of feathers and this means they cannot fly and must keep their weight under control
True or false: Some birds can be carriers of PBFDV and never show signs
What is the most efficient treatment for PBFDV?
There is none, the disease is often fatal
Which fatal virus replicates in feathers, skin, liver, spleen, kidneys and cerebellum and primarily effects young Psittacines?
Polyoma virus is characterized by what 3 subsequent conditions?
- Generalized hemorrhage
- Hepatic necrosis
Is Polyoma typically fatal?
Adult birds that get sick and die from Polyoma virus often have ___________
concurrent infections such as PBFDV
Birds are the natural reservoir host to ______ virus
True or false: Many species of wild birds are effected by west nile virus such as crows, blue jays and prey birds but it is not common in companion birds
West nile virus is transmitted by mosquitoes and __________
direct contact with infected animals
Is west nile virus zoonotic?
Yes (to a degree)
What are the 2 main clinical presentations of West Nile in birds?
2. Neurological signs such as ataxia, seizures
Which avian virus comes in both dry and wet forms?
Avian Pox Virus
how does the dry form of APV present?
wart-like lesions on skin in areas without feathers
how does the wet form of APV present?
plaques in the mouth, throat, trachea and lungs
What 3 main ways is APV transmitted?
2. Direct contact w/ infected bird
3. DIrect contact w/ infected objects (bird feeders)
What are 4 main clinical signs of Avian Pox Virus?
Dyspnea, dysphagia, weight loss, lethargy
Chlamydiosis is zoonotic and causes _______ in humans
Chlamydiosis mainly effects the ______ system
True or false: Chlamydiosis in birds is easy diagnosed and DOxycycline is used for treatment
False - it is difficult to diagnose
Most bird diseases effect their ______
Which avian disease often causes conjunctivitis and other signs of respiratory disease?
Is Mycoplasma zoonotic?
How long can Marek's disease survive in soil?
Marek's disease is spread through _______ and fomites
True or false: Diagnosis and treatment of Mycoplasma in birds is easy
False. No treatment, often fatal and diagnosis is often done post-mortem
What is ILT?
Infectious Laryngotracheitis is a type of _____ virus
True or false: Birds with ILT can be seen coughing up blood
What is the most common route for transmission of ILT?
True or false: ILT is not zoonotic