What is an occupational hazard?
Anything capable of producing an adverse health effect
2 types of toxic exposure types
Acute and Chronic
short term exposure (such as smoke in the cockpit)
long-term exposure (such as smoking)
Routes of Entry Principle for Toxins
Inhalation Absorption Ingestion
toxins enter throgh the lungs
toxins enter through the skin
toxins enter through the mouth
In the aviation environment which route of entry is considerd the most improtant
How quickly the body gets rid of toxins
How long a toxin stays in body
Which organs are responsible for filtering out and excreting toxins
The liver and kidneys
Physiological Principles regarding effects of toxins
Determined by individual's: Metabolism, Body Composition, and Genetics
What are some Aviation toxic substances
Aviation Fuels, Aviation Fuel Combustion, Solvents/Degreasers, Lubricants, Hydraulic Fluids, Fire Extinguishers, Composites/Plastics.
What is the most primary concern regarding toxins from JP fuels
Inhalation of fumes/vapors
What is the most common and toxic substance in the aviation environment
What are some of the effects of CO intoxication?
Headache, weakness, dizziness, nausea, confusion, and loss of consciousness.
What is the easiest way to remember the effects of carbon monoxide exposure
early symptoms look like the flu
What is the source of carbon monoxide
byproduct of incomplete combustion -- e.g. exhaust
What is a primary concern regarding hydraulic fluids
Fluids are maintained under high pressures, inhalation of aerosolized particles
What is the principle hazard of composites
inhalation of microscopic fibers/particles that embed in the lungs and cause an asbestos like reaction
What is the primary hazard of plastics
Burning of plastics releases Cyanide, Phosgene, and Flourine
_________ is anything capable of producing an adverse health effect on a worker.
__________ is a long term exposure to an agent or a series of repeated exposures to an agent that lead to adverse health effects.
_________ Is exposure of an agent over a short period of time that can cause adverse health changes
How long a toxin is kept in the body is __________.
the rate of retention
_________ is the term for how quickly the body rids itself of the toxin.
An odorless, tasteless, and colorless vapor produced by the incomplete combustion of fuel.
Carbon Monoxide (CO)
Three physiological principles that determine a response to a toxin are?
- Body composition
True or false: Plastics release no harmful chemicals when burned.
True or false: The primary hazard with fibers is absorption.
False. Inhalation is!
The effects of a toxin on the body depend on the ________, and ________ of exposure.