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Flashcards in Gravitational Forces Deck (31):
1

Newton's First Law

(Law of Inertia) an object in motion tends to stay in motion & an object at rest tends to stay at rest unless acted upon by an outside force.

2

Newton's Second Law

Force = Mass x Acceleration

3

Newton's Third Law

For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction

4

what is 1G (Gravity)

32.2 Ft/sec2

5

What is Inertia

the resistance to a change in the state of rest or motion

6

Acceleration

The (increased) rate of change of velocity with respect to time. Acceleration of gravity continues until terminal velocity is reached.

7

Deceleration

A reduction in the velocity of a moving body with respect to time (negative acceleration)

8

What is the Tri-axial Reference System

Identifies the direction in which the body receives accelerative forces. (X,Y, & Z axes)

9

X-axis

the axis through the chest to back

10

Y-axis

the axis across the shoulders

11

Z-axis

the long axis along the spine from head to foot

12

What are the factors of acceleration that affect severity of impact on the body

(BIRDI) Body Area and site Intensity Rate of onset Duration Impact direction

13

How do changes in body surface area affect injury severity?

increase body surface area = decreased severity

14

How do changes in intensity of acceleration forces effect injury severity?

increased intensity = increased severity

15

How do changes in rate of onset of acceleration forces effect injury severity?

increased rate of onset = increased severity

16

How do changes in duration of acceleration forces effect injury severity?

increased duration = increased severity

17

How does impact direction effect injury severity?

all other factor being equal, y-axis impacts will result in more severe injury than z- or x-axis impacts. +Gx impacts are the most survivable.

18

What are the factors that reduce the overall efficiency of the body to withstand G's called?

Decremental factors

19

What are the factors that enhance the ability of the body to withstand G-forces called?

Incremental factors

20

Name some of the incremental and decremental factors with respect to +Gz

Decremental Factors: Dehydration, Alcohol Use, Blood Loss, Illness, Varicose Veins, Low Blood Pressure and Incremental Factors: Fear, Excitement, Asymptomatic Hypertension, G-suit, anti-G straining Maneuver

21

Aircraft design features that enhance crash survivability (CREEP)

  • Container
  • Restraints
  • Environment
  • Energy absorption
  • Post crash factors

22

Occupant survivability during an accident sequence is contingent upon the what criteria?

The amount of crash forces transmitted and occupiable living space (Two objects cannot occupy the same space).

23

________ is the resistance to a change in the state of rest or motion.

inertia

24

________ is a reduction in the velocity of a moving body with respect to time.

deceleration

25

The greater the ________ the more severe the effects of accelerative forces.

Intensity

26

The longer a force is applied, the more severe the effect is, is the definition of ______.

duration

27

Lateral accelerations in the G_____ axis are the most lethal to aircraft and occupants.

Y

28

The _________ identifies the direction in which the body recieves accelerative forces.

tri-axial reference system

29

The five physiological effects of high magnitude accelerations are?

  • minor discomfort
  • minor injury
  • incapacitation
  • irreversible injury
  • lethal injury

30

Aircrew members experience mild transverse accelerations during ______ and ______.

taking off, landing

31

The primary source of high magnitude accelerations an deceleration are _________.

Aircraft crashes