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Flashcards in B Quizzes - Part 1 Deck (70):
1

Environmentalists would probably be least interested in this function of soils: (L.O. 1)

 a. 

a natural medium for the growth of plants

 b. 

habitat for soil organisms

 c. 

an engineering material for roads and building

 d. 

reduce carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere

 

 c. 

an engineering material for roads and building

2

 

The C horizon of a soil profile is an example of the interaction between which environmental spheres? (LO#2)

 a. 

hydrosphere and geosphere

 b. 

biosphere and cryosphere

 c. 

pedosphere and lithosphere

 d. 

atmosphere and hydrosphere

 

c. 

pedosphere and lithosphere

3

You are out in the field with a friend and come across a hole in the ground at which point you emphatically proclaim to your friend, “this must be a place where a soil scientist has attempted to describe the soil profile!.” You, confident of your newly acquired soil taxonomy skills, begin to describe the features of the soil profile to your friend. You describe a portion in the middle of the profile that appears to have an accumulation of silicate clays. What would be the likely nomenclature for this horizon? (LO#3 and 18)

 a. 

Ap

 b. 

Bt

 c. 

Bx

 d. 

Et

 

 b. 

Bt

4

Which of the following is not considered one of the five major soil forming factors influencing soil formation?  ( LO #9 and 12)  

 a. 

parent materials

 b. 

living organisms

 c. 

valence state

 d. 

climate

 

c. 

valence state

5

The name used by farmers for the soil layers below the plow layer that can supply vital water and nutrient supplies for plants under limiting conditions (LO#4)

 a. 

B horizon

 b. 

epipedon

 c. 

subsoil

 d. 

E horizon

 

c. 

subsoil

6

Most soils include four components—air, water, organic matter and minerals. After a significant rainfall event, which of the four volume percentages is most likely to correspond to soil organic matter?  (L.O. 5)

 a. 

5%

 b. 

20%

 c. 

30%

 d. 

45%

 

a. 

5%

7

Plants receive nutrients in a variety of ways. Which term describes a situation where dissolved nutrients are transported by moving soil water (LO#6)

 a. 

Diffusion

 b. 

Mass Flow

 c. 

Root interception

 d. 

Colloidal fractionation

 

b. 

Mass Flow

 

8

You hire a general contractor to build a house and she hits rock where you hoped to build a basement. She tells you not to worry, it won’t be too hard to break up, as it is limestone. Which type of rock is limestone? (LO 8)

 a. 

igneous

 b. 

metamorphic

 c. 

sedimentary

 d. 

volcanic

 

c. 

sedimentary

9

Chemical weathering occurs most rapidly at _____________temperatures, ______________ precipitation and _______________ particle sizes. (LO#8)

 a. 

high, low, large

 b. 

high, high, large

 c. 

low, high, small

 d. 

high, high, small

 

 d. 

high, high, small

10

The reaction below, important in the release of plant nutrients into soil solution, is an example of what type of chemical weathering process? (LO#8)

KAlSi3O8 + H2O   yields HAlSi3O8 + OH- + K+

(feldspar) (clay mineral)

 a. 

Hydrolysis

 b. 

Oxidation-Reduction

 c. 

Hydration

 d. 

Complexation

 

 a. 

Hydrolysis

11

A dynamic natural body having properties derived from the combined effects of climate and biotic activities as moderated by topography, acting on parent materials over time is a definition of what? (LO#9)

 a. 

Biosphere

 b. 

Soil

 c. 

Organism

 d. 

Chronosequence

 

b. 

Soil

12

You are walking along the Kentucky River and come across a large bend in the river on the other side of which there is a large field. During times of high water this part of the river often overflows its banks depositing sediment in this field; a process that has likely been occurring for hundreds of years. The soils that form in flood prone regions such as this would likely have what type of transported parent material? (LO#10)

 a. 

Lacustrine

 b. 

Alluvial

 c. 

Colluvial

 d. 

Eolian

 

 b. 

Alluvial

13

The amount of water leaching through a soil is determined not only by the total annual precipitation but also by which of the following factors? (LO#11

 a. 

Seasonal distribution 

 b. 

Temperature and evaporation

 c. 

Topography

 d. 

Permeability

 e. 

all of the above

 

e. 

all of the above

14

 

Which of the following would indicate a MORE weathered soil?  ( LO#8)

 a. 

low Si:Al ratio

 b. 

high Si:Al ratio

 c. 

enrichment in calcium

 d. 

enrichment in potassium

 

a. 

low Si:Al ratio

15

A catena is a group of soils that each differ in: (LO#13)

 a. 

parent material and organisms

 b. 

bulk density and porosity

 c. 

topography and drainage

 d. 

moisture and geographic location

 

c. 

topography and drainage

16

A primary way that soil animals cause soil formation is through: (LO 12)

 a. 

colluviation

 b. 

pedoturbation

 c. 

water distribution

 d. 

weathering

 

b. 

pedoturbation

17

As limestone weathers in a soil Ca 2+ can be released into the soil solution where it can be leached to lower horizons or ultimately out of the soil.  Which of the following is NOT a soil-profile forming process occurring in the situation described above ( L.O. 15)

 a. 

Transformation

 b. 

Translocation

 c. 

Addition

 d. 

Loss

 

c. 

Addition

18

While looking at a soil profile with a colleague, you mention to him/her that you would describe the third horizon from the surface as a "Bt horizon".  From this description your colleague should know that this horizon would have the following ( L.O. #18)

 a. 

accumulations of salts

 b. 

a high sand and silt content, but low clay content

 c. 

concentrations of carbonates

 d. 

an accumulation of silicate clays

 

d. 

an accumulation of silicate clays

19

This soil horizon is comprised of weathered minerals and is highly influenced by soil organic matter? ( L.O. #17)

 a. 

O horizon

 b. 

A horizon

 c. 

B horizon

 d. 

C horizon

 

 b. 

A horizon

20

One would expect an Entisol to have the following horizon profile: ( LO# 23)

 a. 

A-B-C

 b. 

O-A-E-B-C

 c. 

A-C

 d. 

Ap-E-Bt-C

 

c. 

A-C

21

This horizon is generally lighter in color and leached of clay, iron and aluminum oxides. ( LO #17)

 a. 

A

 b. 

B

 c. 

C

 d. 

D

 e. 

E

 

e. 

E

22

Which is the best definition of a soil individual ( L.O. #19)?

 a. 

A small unit with a few properties of a particular soil

 b. 

Very similar pedons, all closely associated in the field

 c. 

A common soil series in the landscape

 d. 

A subgroup of soil making up a great group

 

b. 

Very similar pedons, all closely associated in the field

23

Which diagnostic epipedon is associated with high organic carbon content and is often wet ( L.O. #20)?

 a. 

Ochric

 b. 

Anthropic

 c. 

Histic

 d. 

Argillic

 

c. 

Histic

24

This diagnostic epipedon is characterized by thick dark colored surface horizons, but in contrast to its very similar cousin the mollic epipedon, it tends to be acidic. ( LO#20)

 a. 

Histic

 b. 

Umbric

 c. 

Anthropic

 d. 

Cambic (Note:  Cambic IS the correct spelling!)

 

b. 

Umbric

25

The state soil of KY, the Crider silt loam, is classified as the Typic Paleudalf subgroup.  What is the moisture regime? ( LO#21)  

 a. 

udic

 b. 

ustic

 c. 

aquic

 d. 

xeric

 

a. 

udic

26

Your colleague is printing out a standard soil description but the printer runs out of ink with only having printed the following full taxonomic name of the soil: Mivida fine sandy loam, coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, mesic, Ustic Haplocalcids.  In a rush to provide your client with information about the soil they have and its suitability for the housing development they want to build, your colleague brings the paper to you and asks if you can get any meaning out of it.  Using only the subgroup, what can you tell the client about their soils? ( LO#22,23)

 a. 

Aridisol, calcium deposits, moderate moisture regime

 b. 

Andisol, accumulation of clays, very wet moisture regime

 c. 

Histisol, high shrink swell, hot temperature regime

 d. 

Ultisol, fragipan present, high in organic matter

 

a. 

Aridisol, calcium deposits, moderate moisture regime

27

Which of the following soil orders would pose the greatest problem for building a home with a basement ( L.O. 23)

 a. 

Aridisol

 b. 

Ultisol

 c. 

Alfisol

 d. 

Vertisol

 

 d. 

Vertisol

28

Identify the soil order below that has experienced the most weathering (L.O. 23)

 a. 

Alfisols

 b. 

Mollisols

 c. 

Entisols

 d. 

Oxisols

 

 d. 

Oxisols

29

The chain of Hawaiian Islands were formed from persistent volcanic activity over thousands of years.  If you were to go and examine the soils on these Islands, you would expect that they would be part of what soil order? ( LO#23)

 a. 

Gelisol

 b. 

Inceptisol

 c. 

Spodosol

 d. 

Andisol

 

d. 

Andisol

30

The primary soil forming factor causing Alfisols to differ from Mollisols is:  (LO 23)

 a. 

biota

 b. 

climate

 c. 

parent material

 d. 

topography

 

a. 

biota

31

(LO49) Sand is more desirable than clay in which soil feature(s)?

  

plant available water

   

drainage after thunderstorm

  

cation exchange capacity

  

tilth after tillage

  

all of the above

 

drainage after thunderstorm

32

(LO30)  In order to determine the textural class of a soil, you must know (or measure) its:

  

sand percentage

  

silt percentage

  

clay percentage

   

any two of the three above.

 

any two of the three above.

33

(LO31)  This structural type is most commonly found in A horizons:

  

massive

  

blocky

   

granular

  

prismatic

 

granular

34

(LO34)  Which one of the following is characteristic of a good seedbed?

  

pulverized soil

   

high seed/soil contact

  

minimal soil cover

  

large clods on the surface

  

none of the above.

 

high seed/soil contact

35

(LO36)  A good strategy to reduce soil crusting is:

  

avoid tillage before rainfall events

   

leave previous crop residue on the soil surface

  

use extra tillage to break down surface soil aggregates

  

wait to till and plant until later in the spring season

 

leave previous crop residue on the soil surface

36

(LO38) Bulk density calculation. 
Given:
1) Your sampling cylinder is 5.0 cm in diameter and 10.0 cm in height.
2) The can into which you place the wet soil weighs 76.4 grams.
3) The weight of the wet soil plus can is 407.3 grams.
4) The weight of the dry soil plus can is 361.4 grams.

What is this soil's bulk density (Db) in grams soil/cm3 soil?

  

0.73

  

0.84

   

1.45

  

1.69

 

1.45

37

(LO39) Campsites will have their highest bulk densities:

   

in their most used areas

  

around the edge of their most used areas

  

in nearby forested areas

  

in distant forested areas

 

in their most used areas

38

(LO41)  Functionally, the best way to tell macropores from micropores is that macropores:

  

are big enough to fit large earthworms

   

will not hold water against the force of gravity

  

rarely give up the water they hold

  

are increased in number as tillage levels increas

 

will not hold water against the force of gravity

39

( LO35)  Refer to Tables 4.3 and 4.8.  Which statement is best supported?

  

"As years of cultivation increased, aggregate stability increased."

  

"As years of cultivation increased, soil organic matter levels declined."

  

"As years of cultivation increased, infiltration of simulated rainfall increased."

  

"As years of cultivation increased, overall farm profitability declined."

 

"As years of cultivation increased, soil organic matter levels declined."

40

(LO43)  The charge configuration which best matches that of the water molecule is:

  

random distribution of charges

  

alternating distribution of positive and negative charges

   

positive charges on one "side" of the molecule and negative charges on the other "side" of the molecule

  

none of the above.

 

positive charges on one "side" of the molecule and negative charges on the other "side" of the molecule

41

(LO44)  Given a capillary tube of 0.075 cm in DIAMETER, how high would water rise within the tube?

  

0.5

  

1.0

  

2.0

   

4.0

  

10.0

 

4.0

42

 

(LO48)  Soil moisture calculation.

Given:
1) Gravimetric water content is 0.38 grams H2O/g soil.
2) Db (bulk density) is 1.16 g/cm3 soil.
3) Dp (particle density) is 2.65 g/cm3 soil.

Find volumetric water content in cm3 H20/cm3 soil.

 

  

0.14

  

0.33

   

0.44

  

1.01

 

0.44

43

 

(LO49)  Refer to Table 5.5.  Which statement is best supported?

  

"Ap horizons had the greatest variability in Ksat values."

  

"Ap horizons had the highest average Ksat values."

  

"The deepest Bt horizon had the least variability in Ksat values."

  

"The deepest Bt horizon had the lowest average Ksat values."

   

all of the above are supported by the data

 

all of the above are supported by the data

44

(LO46,52)  While water movement through sandy soils is mostly due to _____ potential, water movement through clayey soils is mostly due to ______ potential. 

   

gravitational, matric

  

gravitational, osmotic

  

matric, gravitational

  

matric, osmotic

 

gravitational, matric

45

(LO55)  The soil textural class which holds the greatest amount of plant available water is:
  
clay
  
clay loam
   
silt loam
  
loam
  
sandy loam

silt loam

46

(LO56)  Water "moves around" the hydrologic cycle by:
  
melting from polar ice
  
transpiration from plants
  
evaporation from soils
  
snow from clouds
  
flow from springs
   
all of the above

all of the above

47

(LO53)  Water flow from a fine textured silt loam layer to an underlying coarser textured sand layer would be:
   
slow
  
fast
  
upward
  
indifferent

slow

48

(LO60)  The most significant benefit of surface residues on soils, whether the residues are made of vegetation, paper, or plastic, is:
  
weed control
   
water conservation
  
erosion prevention
  
crop health

water conservation

49

The process by which clay particles are formed into stacks is called:

flocculation

50

Bulk density calculation.

Given:

1) Your sampling vylinder is 5.0cm in diameter and 10.0 cm in height

2) The can into which you place the wet soil weighs 73.7 grams

3) The weight of the wet soil plus can is 381.1 grams

4) The weight of the dry soil plus can is 343.6 grams

What is the soil's bulk density (Db) in grams soil/cm3 soil?

1.37

51

Cotton roots may have dificulty penetrating a plow pan. Which of the following strategies has proveneffective in allowing cotton roots to get through the plow pans and explore the subsoil for water (and perhaps nutrients)?

 

sub-soiling

52

Percent porosity calculation
Given--Db (bulk density) is 1.22 g/cm3 and Dp (particle density) is 2.65 g/cm3,

What is percent porosity (same as total porosity)?

54.0%

53

In fig. 5.27, a silt loam soil is placed above a sand layer. Water is applied to the surface and it moves through the silt loam layer and stops upon encountering the sand layer. At this point, which of the following water potential terms is dominating water movement?

matric

54

The explanation for why water "sticks" to soil solid surfaces is:

adhesion

55

The component of water potential most closely related t macroporosity is

matric potential

56

Soil moisture calculation.

Given:
1) Volumetric water content is 0.33 cm3 H20/cm3 soil
2) Db (bulk density) is 1.27g/cm3 soil
3) Dp (particle density) is 2.65 g/cm3 soil

Find gravimetric water content in g H20/g soil.

0.26

57

Ksat is generally most variable in ___soil horizons and has the highest average in ___soil horizons. 

Ap, Ap

58

Compare with native forests, agriculturally managed soils are likely to have (see Figure 5.20):

lower infiltration rates

59

See FIgure 5.24. The soil with the highest equilibrium level (stable) infiltration rate is...

loamy sand

60

The difference between ___ and ___ makes up plant available water

field capacity, permanent wilting point

61

Factors which increase soil storage of water include:

leaving plant residues on soils

62

Water movement through the soil-plant-atmosphere-continuum is controlled by:

both stomatal opening/closure and root uptake from soil

63

Soil solids represent approximately this % of a loam at field capacity

 50%

A image thumb
64

pore space resents approximately this percentage of a loam at field capacity

50%

A image thumb
65

Air makes up approximately this percentage of a loam at field capacity

20-30%

A image thumb
66

Water makes up approximately this percentage of a loam at field capacity

20-30%

A image thumb
67

Organic matter represents this percent of a loam at field capacity

5%

A image thumb
68

Minerals represent approximately this percent of a loam at field capacity

45%

A image thumb
69

Q image thumb

the bigger it is the faster it falls!

A image thumb
70

The order for terminal electron acceptors

O2, NO3, Mn4+,Fe3+, SO42-, CO2