Flashcards in B1 Deck (50):
Name 3 factors that can increase blood pressure?
Drinking too much alcohol
Being under stress for a long time
What does too high blood pressure lead to?
Blood vessels to burst:
What does too low blood pressure cause?
What does carbon monoxide do?
Combines with haemoglobin in red blood cells so reduces amount of oxygen
Heart rate increases to get more oxygen
Heart contracts more frequently
What does nicotine do?
Increases heart rate
Heart contracts more often
What does plaque do?
Restrict flow of blood by narrowing arteries leading to possibility of heart attacks
What increases the risk of a heart attack?
What is a thrombosis?
What does a thrombosis cause
It appears in a already narrow artery
Blood flow can be cut off completely
Heart will be cut off from its oxygen supply
Why does kwashiorkor mainly occur in LEDCS
Overpopulation so more demand
Lack of money to invest in agriculture
What are pathogens?
Micro organisms that cause diseases
Name the 4 types of pathogens
What is a parasite
An organism that lives off another organism
What is a host
Organism in which the parasite lives off
What is a vector
They carry diseases without getting it
What are antibodies and how are they produced
When white blood cells come across foreign antigens they produce antigens called ANTIBODIES
These are produced specifically to that pathogen
What are memory cells?
If a person is infected with the same pathogen again these cells remember and immediately make antibodies to kill it
What is the process of immunisation
Injecting dead/inactive pathogens into body
These carry antigens which trigger an immune response
White blood cells produce antibodies to kill them
What is active immunity?
Immune system makes its own antibodies ( PERMANENT)
What is passive immunity?
Using antibodies made my another organism (TEMPORARY)
2 benefits of immunisation?
Stops you from getting ill
If most people are immunised - disease is less likely to spread as easily
Risks of immunisation?
Swelling/redness from injection
Under weather for a week or two
You can't have some vaccines if you're already Sick
What is a benign tumor?
Where the tumour grows until their is no more room - cells stay where they are
What is a malignant tumour?
Rumour grows and can spread to other areas in the body
What can alcohol cause and what happens?
A cirrhosis - toxins produced by alcohol cause death of liver cells
This forms scar tissues that stop blood reaching liver
What does tar in cigarettes cause?
Tar contains carcinogens which make mutations in dna more likely - can cause malignant tumours
What causes a smokers cough?
Smoking damages cilia and encourages mucus.
Excess mucus can't be cleared so it sticks to air passages
What is the process of a response?
Stimulus -> Receptor -> Sensory Neurone -> CNS -> Motor Neurone -> Effector -> Response
What is the connection between two neurones called
What are the branched endings on neuronal re called and what do they do
Connect with other neurones
What does the CORNEA do?
What does the IRIS do?
Controls the amount of light entering the pupil
What is the job of the LENS?
To refract light
What does the RETINA do and it's 2 parts?
Contains light receptors
Rods - dim light
Cones- sensitive to colour
How does the eye focus on distant objects?
Ciliary muscles relax
Suspension ligaments pull tight
Light refracted LESS
How does the eye focus on close objects?
Ciliary muscles contract
Dispensary ligaments relax
Light refracted MORE
What is the job of INSULIN and where is it made?
Controls blood sugar levels
When is insulin added and what does it do?
Added when blood glucose levels are too HIGH
It turns glucose in the liver to glycogen and glucose is then removed by the liver
What are auxins?
Plant growth hormones
What do auxins do?
Stimulate cell elongation process
Change direction of root and shoot growth
What do chromosomes do?
They carry genes and DNA
What do genes do?
Control development of different characteristics eg eye colour
What does DNA do?
Carries genetic code that determines characteristics of a living thing
What are alleles?
Different versions of the same gene
What does the recessive allele mean?
Only shows if no dominant present
What is homozygous?
Two same alleles
What is heterozygous
Two different alleles
What are genotype a
Alleles you have for a particular gene
What is a phenotype
Alleles produce characteristics