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Flashcards in B1 Deck (50):
1

Name 3 factors that can increase blood pressure?

Smoking
Being overweight
Drinking too much alcohol
Being under stress for a long time

2

What does too high blood pressure lead to?

Blood vessels to burst:

Strokes
Brain/Kidney damage

3

What does too low blood pressure cause?

Poor circulation
Fainting
Dizziness

4

What does carbon monoxide do?

Combines with haemoglobin in red blood cells so reduces amount of oxygen

Heart rate increases to get more oxygen

Heart contracts more frequently

Blood pressure⬆️

5

What does nicotine do?

Increases heart rate

Heart contracts more often

Blood pressure⬆️

6

What does plaque do?

Restrict flow of blood by narrowing arteries leading to possibility of heart attacks

7

What increases the risk of a heart attack?

Narrow arteries

8

What is a thrombosis?

Blood clot

9

What does a thrombosis cause

It appears in a already narrow artery

Blood flow can be cut off completely

Heart will be cut off from its oxygen supply

➡️Heart attack

10

Why does kwashiorkor mainly occur in LEDCS

Overpopulation so more demand
Lack of money to invest in agriculture

11

What are pathogens?

Micro organisms that cause diseases

12

Name the 4 types of pathogens

Fungi
Bacteria
Protozoa
Viruses

13

What is a parasite

An organism that lives off another organism

14

What is a host

Organism in which the parasite lives off

15

What is a vector

They carry diseases without getting it

16

What are antibodies and how are they produced

When white blood cells come across foreign antigens they produce antigens called ANTIBODIES

These are produced specifically to that pathogen

17

What are memory cells?

If a person is infected with the same pathogen again these cells remember and immediately make antibodies to kill it

18

What is the process of immunisation

Injecting dead/inactive pathogens into body
These carry antigens which trigger an immune response
White blood cells produce antibodies to kill them

19

What is active immunity?

Immune system makes its own antibodies ( PERMANENT)

20

What is passive immunity?

Using antibodies made my another organism (TEMPORARY)

21

2 benefits of immunisation?

Stops you from getting ill
If most people are immunised - disease is less likely to spread as easily

22

Risks of immunisation?

Swelling/redness from injection
Under weather for a week or two

You can't have some vaccines if you're already Sick

23

What is a benign tumor?

Where the tumour grows until their is no more room - cells stay where they are

24

What is a malignant tumour?

Rumour grows and can spread to other areas in the body

25

What can alcohol cause and what happens?

A cirrhosis - toxins produced by alcohol cause death of liver cells
This forms scar tissues that stop blood reaching liver

26

What does tar in cigarettes cause?

Tar contains carcinogens which make mutations in dna more likely - can cause malignant tumours

27

What causes a smokers cough?

Smoking damages cilia and encourages mucus.
Excess mucus can't be cleared so it sticks to air passages

28

What is the process of a response?

Stimulus -> Receptor -> Sensory Neurone -> CNS -> Motor Neurone -> Effector -> Response

29

What is the connection between two neurones called

A synapse

30

What are the branched endings on neuronal re called and what do they do

Dendrites
Connect with other neurones

31

What does the CORNEA do?

Bends light

32

What does the IRIS do?

Controls the amount of light entering the pupil

33

What is the job of the LENS?

To refract light

34

What does the RETINA do and it's 2 parts?

Contains light receptors

Rods - dim light

Cones- sensitive to colour

35

How does the eye focus on distant objects?

Ciliary muscles relax
Suspension ligaments pull tight
Light refracted LESS

36

How does the eye focus on close objects?

Ciliary muscles contract
Dispensary ligaments relax
Light refracted MORE

37

What is the job of INSULIN and where is it made?

Controls blood sugar levels
Pancreas

38

When is insulin added and what does it do?

Added when blood glucose levels are too HIGH
It turns glucose in the liver to glycogen and glucose is then removed by the liver

39

What are auxins?

Plant growth hormones

40

What do auxins do?

Stimulate cell elongation process
Change direction of root and shoot growth

41

What do chromosomes do?

They carry genes and DNA

42

What do genes do?

Control development of different characteristics eg eye colour

43

What does DNA do?

Carries genetic code that determines characteristics of a living thing

44

What are alleles?

Different versions of the same gene

45

What does the recessive allele mean?

Only shows if no dominant present

46

What is homozygous?

Two same alleles

47

What is heterozygous

Two different alleles

48

What are genotype a

Alleles you have for a particular gene

49

What is a phenotype

Alleles produce characteristics

50

What is the difference between systolic pressure and diastolic pressure?

Systolic - pressure @ highest
Diastlolic - pressure @ lowest