What is a double-blind trial?
In some trials, placebos are used. In a double-blind trial only the researcher knows who is given the real drug, neither the doctor nor the patient know.
What is Thalidomide, when and why was it banned and how is it used now?
Developed as a sleeping pill, but doctors realised it could control morning sickness.
Banned in 1962 because some babies were born with limb abnormalities as a result of their mothers taking thalidomide.
Rules for drug testing were improved and nowadays Thalidomide can be used to treat leprosy and some cancers.
What are Statins and what are some common side effects of them?
Statins are drugs which lower the amount of LDLs carried in the blood, recommended for people with cardiovascular disease caused by high cholesterol.
Common side effects include headaches, nausea, muscle and joint pain and a higher risk of diabetes.
Define a drug.
A drug changes the chemical processes in the body.
Describe the different drug types.
Prompt: Sedative, Stimulant, Painkiller, Performance Enhancer, Hallucinogen.
Sedative/Depressant- Slows down brain activity.
Stimulant- Increases brain activity.
Painkiller- Blocks nerve impulses so reduces pain.
Performance enhancer- Causes muscle growth.
Hallucinogen- Distorts what is seen or heard.
Drugs can be...
Legal or illegal- both can harm your body.
Addictive or non-addictive- heroin and cocaine are very addictive.
Recreational or medicinal- recreational drugs are used for pleasure.
Why is it easy to become addicted to drugs and hard to stop?
Because recreational drugs affect the nervous system it's easy to become addicted. If you try to stop taking addictive drugs you can suffer from withdrawal symptoms.
Which has a greater impact on general health: legal or illegal drugs .
Whilst illegal drugs are generally more harmful than legal drugs, more people use legal drugs which are still harmful therefore legal drugs have greater impact on general health than illegal drugs.
Why do some cannabis users go on to use heroin?
Cannabis is an illegal drug which must be bought from drug dealers. This can put the user in contact with hard drugs, although not all cannabis users do go on to use hard drugs. Nearly all heroin users previously smoked cannabis.
The chemicals in cannabis may cause mental illness.
How and why are new drugs tested before being sold as medicines?
1. In a laboratory on cells, tissues or organs.
2. On animals to test toxicity.
3. Healthy human volunteers given very low doses to test safety and side effects.
4. Tested on patients with the relevant illness to test effectiveness.
If the drug is ok, it can then be licensed.
What are steroids and some side effects of them?
Steroids are a type of performance enhancing drug which stimulates muscle growth.
Side effects to anabolic steroids include paranoia, irritability and mood swings. The use of steroids is considered unethical.
What happens in the body to make someone dependent on a drug?
Changes to chemical processes.