Which side of the heart contains oxygenated blood?
Why does the left ventricle have thicker walls than the right ventricle?
Left has to pump oxygenated blood around the rest of the body.
How does blood move in and out of the heart?
Deoxygenated blood from the body goes into the heart via the vena cava into the right atrium and ventricle. It then goes out to the lungs via the pulmonary artery.
Oxygenated blood returns from the lungs back into the heart via the pulmonary vein into the left atrium and ventricle. It then goes out to the rest of the body via the aorta.
How is the heart muscle supplied with oxygenated blood?
Describe an artery.
(Hint: Lumen, Walls, Direction, Blood)
-Thick muscular walls with elastic fibres.
-Carries blood away from the heart.
-Blood is oxgenated (except pulmonary artery).
Describe a vein.
(Hint: Lumen, Walls, Direction, Blood)
-Relatively thin walls.
-Carries blood towards the heart.
-Blood is deoxgenated (except pulmonary vein).
Describe a capillary.
(Hint: Lumen, Walls, Blood)
-Walls are one-cell thick.
-Carry blood through organs and allow exchange of substances with all the living cells in the body.
What is a stent?
A stent is a metal mesh-like 'cage' which can be used to keep a coronary artery open when it is being blocked by a plaque of cholesterol.
Why can a narrowed blood vessel cause problems for a person's health?
If blood vessels are blocked or narrow the blood will not flow efficiently. Then organs will be deprived of nutrients and oxygen.
What is the problem with leaky heart valves?
Leaky valves mean the blood could flow in the wrong direction.
What are the two main types of replacement heart valves?
Mechanical or Tissue.
What is 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage of a mechanical replacement heart valve?
A- Last a lifetime because they are strong.
D- Damages red blood cells so anti-blood clotting drugs must be used for the rest of life.
What is 1 advantage and 1 disadvantage to a tissue replacement heart valve?
A- Do not damage red blood cells, so no need to take anti-blood clotting drugs.
D-Must be replaced every 10-20 years.
What does blood plasma transport?
The fluid plasma contains red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets.
Blood plasma transports many substances including:
-Carbon dioxide from organs to the lungs.
-Soluble products of digestion from the small intestine or other organs.
-Urea from the liver to the kidneys where urine is made.
How do red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the cells?
Red blood cells contain haemoglobin which combines with oxygen to form oxyhaemoglobin in the lungs.
They then carry this to all the organs/cells where the oxyhaemoglobin splits into oxygen and haemoglobin.
What are platelets and what are their function?
Platelets are small fragments of cells which do not have a nucleus.
Platelets help blood to clot at the site of a wound.
How is blood from blood donors used?
Blood from blood donors can be separated into cells and plasma. The plasma can be given to patients in a transfusion to increase blood volume.
What is/are the advantage and disadvantages of artificial blood?
A-It does not contain cells so blood matching is not necessary.
D- Doesn't carry as much oxygen as whole blood.
D-Some types are insoluble in water so do not mix well with blood.
D- Some artificial bloods cause unpleasant side effects.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of artificial hearts?
A- Do not need to match the person's tissue.
A- No need for immunosuppressant drugs.
D- Problems with blood clotting.
D- Long stays in hospital.
What are the names of the two transport tissues in flowering plants and what does each one do?
Xylem tissue transports water and mineral ions from the roots to the stem, leaves and flowers.
Phloem tissue carries dissolved sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant including growing regions and storage organs.
A scientist is designing a new heart valve.
Suggest some factors the scientist needs to consider so that the newly designed valve works effectively in the heart.
-Isn't rejected by the body.
-Long lasting material.
-If it is strong.
-Doesn't cause clotting.
-Doesn't leak or backflow.