B1.1 Keeping Healthy Flashcards Preview

GCSE AQA Biology (old spec) > B1.1 Keeping Healthy > Flashcards

Flashcards in B1.1 Keeping Healthy Deck (51):
1

What's a balanced diet?

Food that provides you everything you need to survive

2

Why do we need carbohydrates and which foods are a good source of it?

Gives you energy
Bread, potatoes, pasta

3

Why do we need fats and which foods are a good source of it?

Stores energy and protects organs
Fast-food, cake, chocolate

4

Why do we need proteins and which foods are a good source of it?

Growth and repair
Meat and dairy

5

Why do we need vitamins and which foods are a good source of it?

Keeps you healthy
Vegetables and fruit

6

Why do we need minerals and which foods are a good source of it?

Calcium for teeth and bones
Fruit and vegetables

7

Why do we need fibre and which foods are a good source of it?

Helps digestion, stops constipation
Grains and whole wheat food

8

Why do we need water and which foods are a good source of it?

To hydrate ourselves
Water, watermelon, tomatoes

9

What disease do you get for a lack of vitamin C?

Scurvy

10

What's metabolism?

The series of chemical reactions in your cells

11

What's your metabolic rate?

The rate at which your cells use energy. Varies between each individual

12

What 3 factors affect your metabolic rate?

Inherited factors
Amount of exercise you do
Proportion of muscle to fat

13

Where do chemical reactions in your cells take place?

Cytoplasm

14

What are the benefits of exercise?

Reduces body fat
Increases lifespan
Strengthens muscles
Reduces diabetes and cancer risk
Strengthens heart, bones and lungs
Boosts mood, decreases stress
Improves memory and coordination
Boosts immune system

15

What are the risks of obesity?

Type 2 diabetes
Heart disease
Cancer
Depression

16

What are the health risks of being anerexic?

Infertility
Anemia- low iron, dizziness
Osteoporosis- low bone density
Amenorrhea-anxiety

17

How do you lose weight?

Reducing the amount of food you eat so cutting down on energy consumption
Doing more exercise so burning more energy

18

What are the two types of cholesterol?

HDL - good
LDL - bad

19

What's bad about cholesterol?

Can stick to the lining of your arteries causing blood clots
Heart disease risk and high blood pressure

20

Why is cholesterol necessary?

Essential for cell membranes and hormones

21

Name three types of viruses?

HIV
hepatitis
Cold virus

22

Put these in order of size from smallest to biggest
Cell membrane, bacteria, plant cell, glucose molecule, animal cell, virus

Smallest -----
Glucose molecule
Cell membrane
Virus
Bacteria
Animal cell
Plant cell
------ biggest

23

What's a pathogen?

A microorganism that causes disease

24

What does infectious mean?

When pathogens pass from one person to another

25

Why do we get symptoms from diseases?

Bacteria and viruses reproduce rapidly in you body and produce toxins

26

How do bacteria reproduce?
How do viruses reproduce?

Bacteria- divide and multiply rapidly
Virus- take over another cell and reproduce rapidly

27

How does bacteria cause disease?

They reproduce rapidly in the body and produce toxins which make you feel ill and damage cells

28

How do viruses cause disease?

Reproduce rapidly and damage your cells and make you feel ill. They rarely produce toxins

29

What diseases do bacteria cause?

MRSA
E-Coli
Salmonella

30

What diseases do viruses cause?

Mumps
Herpes
Colds
HIV/AIDS
Influenza

31

What are the features of a bacteria cell?

Cell membrane
Plasmid
Capsule
Cytoplasm
Pilus
Chromosome
Flagellum
Cell wall

32

What are the features of a virus?

Head
Neck
Sheath
DNA
Collar
Tail fibre
Base plate

33

How was Semmelweis?

He realised lots of people were dying because they were event washing their hand and doctors and nurses were spreading disease by not washing their hands. He then told people to and the death rate noticeably decreased.

34

How does our body stop us getting dieases?

Skin - outer barrier to infections
Lungs - mucus and cilia trap pathogens and sweep them out
Stomach- hydrochloric acid kills many microbes
Eyes - produce tears which contain a natural antiseptic
Blood - scabs are formed to stop open wounds, contains white blood cells

35

How do white blood cells fight against disease?

Can engulf pathogens and digest it
They attack antigens by releasing antibodies
They release anti-toxins to fight against the toxins

36

What do painkillers do?

Relieve symptoms and pain but don't kill the pathogen

37

What do antibiotics do?

Kill bacteria that cause disease
They clump onto bacteria and kill them

38

Who's Alexander Fleming?

He discovered penicillin
There was mould around bacteria but the mould was killing the bacteria. He then extracted the mould and made penicillin.

39

How do you safely grow bacteria for experiments?

In agar in a Petri dish which are kept in incubators

40

What is the maximum temperature bacteria can be grown at in schools?

25 degrees Celsius

41

What's the difference between an epidemic and a pandemic?

Epidemic is a pathogen that affects 1 country but a pandemic affects many countries

42

How do superbugs evolve?

1)A bacterial infection causes a sore throat. As the bacteria divide, one bacterial cell becomes resistant to a popular type of antibiotic.
2)the patient takes prescribed antibiotics
3)non-resistant bacteria are killed but the resistant bacteria have a competitive advantage and survive
4)the patient starts to feel better and stops taking the antibiotics but the resistant bacteria remain
5)the remaining resistant bacteria infect someone else and pass on the resistant gene.

43

How do mutations in bacteria pass on?

A mutation in DNA occurs a variation and some bacterium become resistant to antibiotics. When the person takes the antibiotic the non resistant bacteria die and the resistant bacteria survives. This bacteria them reproduces and passes the resistant DNA to their offspring.

44

What's an antigen?

A unique protein on the surface of a cell. It's recognised by the immune system so if the immune system doesn't recognise the antigen then it attacks.

45

What's a vaccine?

The dead or inactive pathogen material used in a vaccination.

46

What's a vaccination?

Introducing small quantities of dead pathogens into the body to stimulate the white blood cells to produce antibodies that destroy the pathogens. This makes the person immune to future infection.

47

Define immunisation

Giving a vaccine that allows immunity to develop without exposure to the disease itself.

48

What are the advantages of vaccinations?

Stop epidemics and individuals getting ill.

49

What are the disadvantages of vaccinations?

Side effects
Not 100% effective

50

What's the MMR vaccine?

A vaccination given to children to stop measles, mumps and rubella.
However, there was some controversy as people thought a side effect was having a larger chance of getting up autism so some children didn't get the vaccine. Since then it's proven MMR and autism aren't linked.

51

Give an example of natural passive immunisation and natural active immunisation.

Passive: mothers antibodies in breast milk
Active: exposed to a pathogen your cells produce antibodies