B1.2 Coordination And Control Flashcards Preview

GCSE AQA Biology (old spec) > B1.2 Coordination And Control > Flashcards

Flashcards in B1.2 Coordination And Control Deck (43):
1

Name you sense organs

Eye
Ear
Nose
Tongue
Skin

2

What is the brain process that happens if a soldier heard bullets and then ducks under fire?

Stimulus - bullet shot heard
Receptor - vibration receptors in ear stimulated. Electrical impulse sent along sensory neurone
Coordinators - brain or spinal cord. Electrical impulse along motor neurone
Effector - muscles in leg stimulated
Response - muscles in leg activated and he ducks

3

What's a synapse?

A junction between two neurons where the transmission of information is chemical rather than electrical.

4

Define sensory neurone

Carries impulses from receptor to spinal cord

5

Define spinal cord

A bunch of nerves that travels up to the brain

6

Define stimulus

A change in the environment
(Smell, temperature, sound...)

7

Define response

How your body reacts to the change in stimulus

8

Define receptor

Sensor in the body that detects stimuli
Eg. Nerves, taste buds

9

Define effector

This is where the effect is felt
Eg. A muscle that tightens

10

Define motor neurone

Carries nervous impulses from the CNS to the effector

11

Define CNS

Central nervous system
Consists of the brain and spinal cord

12

What's your brain?

Centre of thought processes
Coordinates responses
Some responses are automatic

13

What's a reflex?

An automatic response. They help you avoid danger because they happen so fast.

14

What three neurones do reflexes involve?

Sensory
Motor
Relay (connects sensory and motor neurones)

15

What are the five basic steps on a reflex action?

Stimulus -> receptor -> coordinator -> effector -> response

16

What are the steps in your brain when you touch a hot plate?

The stimulus is you touching the hot plate.
The sense it receptor in your skin of your finger is triggered. Sensory neurone crosses the relay neurone (synapse) and then the motor neurone goes to your bicep muscles to make you withdraw your hand.

17

Name an example of a reflex action we do constantly.

Breathing or swallowing
The impulses bypass the conscious part of your brain so you do it subconsciously

18

What's oestrogen? Where's it produced?

Ovaries
Stops FSH being produced so that only one egg matures in a cycle
Stimulates pituitary gland to release LH
Stimulates the womb lining to develop to receive the fertilised egg

19

What's FSH and where is it produced?

Made by pituitary gland
Causes egg to mature and oestrogen to be produced

20

What's LH and wheres it produced?

Made in pituitary gland
Stimulates the mature egg to be released from the ovary (ovulation)

21

What are hormones?

Chemical substances that coordinate many processes within your body

22

What's a target organ?

They are where your hormones are carried to

23

What are glands?

Make and release hormones

24

When is the egg released in the menstrual cycle?

Day 12-16

25

When does your old egg leave your body in the menstrual cycle?

Day 0-5

26

When is the new egg in the womb in the menstrual cycle?

Day 20-28

27

When is LH, oestrogen and FSH at its highest during the menstrual cycle?

Around day 12

28

What's infertility?

When a couple are unable to conceive naturally.

29

What are the pros of oral contraceptives?

Doesn't interrupt sex
Lighter periods
Reduces risk of cancer
Reduces ache

30

What are the cons of oral contraceptives?

Temporary side effects (mood swings, headaches)
Increase blood pressure
Doesn't stop STI's
Breakthrough bleeding
Risk of blood clots or breast cancer

31

What is the oral contraceptive?

Contains artificial oestrogen and progesterone. Stops fertilisation or treats painful or heavy periods. 99% effective. Hormones trick body into thinking its pregnant which stops it releasing hormones (LH and FSH) which stimulate ovulation.

32

What are pros of IVF?

Boosts odds of getting pregnant

33

What are the disadvantages of IVF?

You could get an infection
Expensive
You could get more children than expected
Could be seen as unethical

34

What is IVF?

Stimulates the development of eggs in the ovaries. The eggs are collected and fertilised in a test tube. They are then returned to the uterus

35

What is homeostasis?

Keeping a constant internal environment so that our enzymes work properly to carry out chemical reactions.
Things that need to be controlled are:
Temperature
Glucose
Water
Ions (salt)
Carbon dioxide

36

What's our body temperature?

37 degrees Celsius

37

If you get too cold, you can develop ________

Hypothermia

38

If you get too hot you can develop ________

Hyperthermia

39

What's phototropism?

A plants response to light
They grow up, towards light
Auxins are made in the tip of a growing shoot and move down the stem
When a shoot gets light from above the auxins produced at the tip are spread out evenly at the shoot.
As there is an equal amount of auxin in the shoot, the shoot grows straight up.

40

What's gravitropism?

The process of how roots grow down.
Auxins slow down growth on the lower side of the root so the root curves down. This means the roots can grow down and collect the nutrients from the ground

41

What is auxin?

A hormone found in plants that controls and coordinates growth

42

What two substances are lost during sweating?

Water and ions

43

How does the sugar in a sports drink help an athlete during a marathon?

Used in respiration