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Flashcards in B2 - Organisation Deck (40):

What is a tissue?

A group of similar cells that work together to carry out a particular function. 


What is the function of the muscular tissue? 

It contracts to move whatever it is attatched to (in the stomach it moves the stomach wall to churn up food)


What is the function of the glandular tissue? 

It makes chemicals like enzymes and hormones. 


What is the function of the epithelial tissue?

It covers parts of the body.


What is the function of a gland (eg. pancreas, salivary) ?

To produce digestive juices (enzymes).


What is the function of the stomach and small intestine? 

To digest food. 


What is the function of the liver? 

To produce bile - which aids digestion of lipids. 


What is the function of the small intestine? 

To absorb soluble food molecules. 


What is the function of the large intestine? 

To absorb water from undigested food, leaving faeces. 


What is an enzyme? 

A catalyst which increases the speed of reaction without being changed or used up in the body. 


What are the two main parts to the enzyme, needed to fit with eachother in order for the enzyme to work? 

The active site, and the subtrate.  


How do you work out the rate of reaction of an enzyme? 

1000 / time 


What is the function of amylase? 

Amylase converts carbohydrates into simple sugars. 


What is the function of proteases? 

Proteases convert protiens into amino acids. 


What is the function of lipases? 

Lipases convert lipids into fatty acids. 


What is the function of the gall bladder? 

It's where bile is stored, before it's releases into the small intestine. 


What is the function of the pancreas? 

The pancreas produces the enzymes; protease, amylase, lipase. Then released into the small intestine. 


In the lungs, where does gaseous exchange actually take place? 

In the alveoli.


Where does the air travel through to get to the alveoli? 

We breathe our air in through the trachea, which splits into two tubes called bronchi, then splits into progressively smaller tubes called bronchioles, then into the alveoli. 


What is the function of the valves in the heart?

The valves ensure blood flows in rigt direction - prevents it flowing backwards. 


What is the function of the arteries? 

They carry the blood away from heart. 


What is the function of the veins? 

The veins carry blood to the heart. 


What is the function of the capillaries? 

They are involved in the exchange of materials at the tissues. 


What is the function of the red blood cells? 

Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all the cells in the body? 


What is the prime function of white blood cells? 

White blood cells defend against infection - they produce antibodies to fight microorganisms, and produce antitoxins to neutralise toxins produced  the microorganisms. 


What are platelets and what is thier function? 

They are small fragments of cells that help the blood to clot a wound - to stop blood pouring out and viruses getting in. 


What is plasma? 

Plasma is the liquid that carries everything in the blood such as; blood cells, CO2, hormones, etc. 


Outline three ways that red blood cells are adpted to carry oxygen? 

They have a large surface area, they have no nucleus for more room to carry oxygen and also they contain haemoglobin's which bind with oxygen. 


What are stents? 

Stents are tubes inserted into arteries to keep them open for blood to flow through - which reduces the risk of a heart attack. 


What is a communicable disease? 

Spead from person - person. 


What is a non-communicable disease? 

It cannot be spead and generallly last for a long time and get worse slowly such as cancer, etc. 


In a plant cell, what is the function of the epidermal tissue? 

This covers the whole plant. 


In a plant cell, what happens at the palisade mesophyll tissue? 



In a plant cell, what happens at the spongy mesophyll tissue? 

It contains big air spaces for diffusion of gas. 


In a plant cell, what is the function of the xylem and phloem? 

The transportation of water, food and minerals around the leaf. 


In a plant cell, what happens at the meristem tissue? 

Found at growing tips of the leaf - it is able to diffferentiate for the leaf to grow. 


What is transpiration? 

Transpiration is a side effect of the way leaves are adpted for photosynthesis - specificly the loss of water from the plant. 


Give three ways that affect transpiration of a plant? 

Light intensity, temperature and humidity. 


What is stomata and what is it's function? 

It is a tiny opening found on the under-surface of a leaf that is used for gas exchange. 


What is the adapted cell that helps open and close stomata? 

Guard cells.