B3 - Infection and Response Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B3 - Infection and Response Deck (17):

What is a viral disease? 

A viral disease is a communicable disease, that can be spread, such as measles, HIV, etc. 


What is a fungal disease? 

A disease which can be spread from a plant with a fungi that has grown on it. It can be caught by people if they touch fungi contaminated surfaces on plants. 


What is a disease that is caused by a protist? 

An example of a protist is a mosquito, and malaria is the disease caused by this protist. 


Give two examples of a bacterial disease. 

Salmonella - a type of food poisoning. 

Gonorrhoea - a sexually transmitted disease. 


Give four ways to reduce or prevent the spread of disease. 

Being hygienic, destroying vectors, isolating infected individuals and vaccination. 


Name three ways our bodies stop alot of pathogens getting in, in the first place. 

The skin acts as a barrier, hairs in our nostrils trap paricles that could contain pathogens, the trachea secrete muscus to trap pathogens, the stomach produces hydrochloric acid. 


What are the three lines of attack of the white blood cell? 

Consume the pathogen, produce antibodies then produce antitoxins. 


What is the process of vaccination? 

Vaccinations involve injecting small amounts of dead or inactive pathogens. These carry antigens, whcih cause your body to produce antibodies to attack them. Now the white blood cell is familiar with the pathogen and can prepare if the same pathogen ever appears. 


What is a painkiller? 

Drugs that relieve pain such as aspirin. They don't actually kill pathogens, just help reduce the symptoms. 


What are antibiotics? 

Drugs that actually kill or prevent the growth of bacteria. 


What are the three main stages of drug testing? 

The drugs are tested on human cells and tissues, then they are tested on live animals, then tested on healthy, human volunteers. 


What is meant by the efficiacy of a drug? 

Whether the drug works and produces the effect you're looking for. 


What are viruses? 

Viruses are tiny particles. They invade host cells in an organism and use them to make new virus cells, they eventually cause the cell to burst, making us feel ill. 


How does bacteria make us feel ill? 

Small living cells that either damage directly, or produce toxins to damage cells and tissues. This makes us feel ill. 


What do fungi produce that is harmful to organisms? 

Hyphae (thread like structures) that penetrate tissues such as skin, causing damage. They also produce spores that spread to other animals and plants. 


How do some bacteria become antibiotic-resistant? 

In a population of bacteria, some could have random mutations which are resistant to antibiotics. If we take antibiotics unneccesarily, these will survive and the non-resistant bacteria will die. Then they will start to reproduce rapidly.