B2.3.5 - Inheritance Flashcards Preview

SHHS - Science - B2.3 Adaptation and Inheritance - Year 8 > B2.3.5 - Inheritance > Flashcards

Flashcards in B2.3.5 - Inheritance Deck (14)
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1

What is the name of the chemical that makes up a persons genetic material?

DNA

2

Describe how genetic material is passed from parents to their children.

Sperm contians 23 chromosomes

Egg contains 23 chromosomes

During fertilisation genetic material joins together.

Each nucleus in the resulting embryo contains 46 chromosomes

3

Another name for an egg cells is an...

ovum

4

What is the scientific name for sex cells (eggs and sperm)?

Gametes

5

How many chromosomes are found in the nucleus of a body cell?

46

(23 pairs)

6

Where is a persons genetic material stored?

In the nucleus of their cells.

7

What is a gene?

A section of DNA...

...that codes for a characteristic e.g. eye colour

8

How many chromosomes are found in a sperm cell?

23

9

Describe the difference between a gene and a chromosome

Gene is a short section of DNA that codes for a characteristic e.g eye colour

Chromosome is a long stand of DNA that contains many genes, which is coiled up to save space.

10

How many chromosomes are found in an egg cell (ovum)?

23

11

Why do we look like both parents?

Because you inherit half of each parents chromosomes.

Therefore you inherit half of each parents genetic material (genes)

12

What is a chromosome?

A coiled up strand of DNA...

...that contains many genes.

13

Explain why communication between scientists was important in the discovery of the structure of DNA.

  • The structure of DNA was discovered using work from two laboratories.
  • Wilkins and Franklin used X-rays to take images of DNA crystals.
  • Watson and Crick saw this image and used it to work out the double helix structure of DNA.
  • Evidence from other scientists helped Watson and Crick to prove that DNA had a double helix structure.
  • If Watson and Crick had not seen these images it would have taken longer to identify the structure of DNA.
  • Scientists communicate evidence by publishing their results, presenting at conferences and meeting each other to discuss their results.
  • If scientists don’t communicate or share their findings, different laboratories could be researching the same thing, or people may not have all of the evidence they need to draw a conclusion.

14

What is the function of the nucleus of a cell?

To hold the genetic material of a person (DNA)

To control the cell's activities.