B3 Organisation and Digestion (the digestive system)-Functions of each organ Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in B3 Organisation and Digestion (the digestive system)-Functions of each organ Deck (17):

Mouth (Containing teeth, tongue and salivary glands)

Mouth: the first part of the digestive system, where food enters the alimentary canal and body, digestion begins. Chewing and salivary enzymes in the mouth are the beginning of the digestive process (breaking down the food).



Teeth: biting the food together.



Tongue: it helps you taste materials going into your mouth.


Salivary glands

Salivary glands: glands located in the mouth that produce saliva. Saliva contains enzymes that break down carbohydrates (starch) into smaller molecules.



Diaphragm: when the diaphragm contracts and moves lower, the chest cavity enlarges, reducing the pressure inside the lungs. To equalize the pressure, air enters the lungs. When the diaphragm relaxes and moves back up, the elasticity of the lungs and chest wall pushes air out of the lungs.



Liver: a large organ located above and in front of the stomach. Produces and discharges bile, a greenish-yellow digestive fluid. Bile travels from the liver to the small intestine, where it aids in the digestion of fats. The liver stores food which it releases into the blood whenever the body needs it. Also changes some digested food into compounds needed by the body's cells.


Gall bladder

Gall bladder: a pear-shaped pouch that lies under the liver. Extra bile is stored here before releasing it into the duodenum (a digestive chemical which is produced in the liver) into the small intestine. Bile aids digestion by breaking up large molecules of fatty foods.



Duodenum: Where food is mixed with digestive enzymes and bile. It receives partially digested food (known as chyme) from the stomach and plays a vital role in the chemical digestion of chyme in preparation for absorption in the small intestine. Many chemical secretions from the pancreas, liver and gallbladder mix with the chyme in the duodenum to facilitate chemical digestion.


Bile duct

Bile duct: a digestive chemical that is produced in the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and secreted into the small intestine.


Small intestine

Small intestine: fluids from the liver and pancreas dilute and further digest the "partly digested food". "Digested food", now in a liquid form, is absorbed into the bloodstream through the tiny blood vessels in the small intestine walls. The "indigestible food" goes on to the large intestine.



Appendix: a small, worm-shaped organ attached to the large intestine. It does not seem to serve any purpose in the human body (unknown).






Stomach: makes digestive juices called gastric juices, which break down "chewed food" into "partly digested food" before it goes to the small intestine for final digestion. Gastric juices are stored in tiny sacs (or bags) in the lining of the stomach. The stomach also serves as a storage tank for food.



Pancreas: (produces digestive enzymes) an enzyme-producing gland located below the stomach and above the intestines. Enzymes from the pancreas help in the digestion of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the small intestine. Makes enzymes that break down all types of food. The pancreas sends enzymes and digestive juices into the small intestine to help reduce food to a liquid form.


Large intestine

Large intestine: fluids are absorbed from "indigestible food" which becomes "solid waste". The large intestine stores the waste material until the body is ready to get rid of it.



Rectum: the lower part of the large intestine, where feces are stored before they are excreted.



Anus: the end of the digestive system/tract from which feces (waste) exits the body.