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Flashcards in B3h-Cloning Deck (16)

What is cloning?

Making an exact copy of another organism


What are clones?

Genetically identical organisms


Who is Dolly the sheep?

The first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell


Describe the process of nuclear transfer

1) nucleus removed from egg cell
2) another nucleus from an udder cell is inserted into egg cell
3)cell given an electric shock then starts to divide
4) embryo implanted into uterus of surrogate mother then develops into a clone


What are the uses of cloning?

-mass producing animals with desirable characteristics
-producing animals that have been genetically engineered to provide human products
-producing human embryos to supply stem cells for therapy


What are the benefits of cloning?

-mass produce animals with desirable characteristics
-human embryos produced by cloning adult body cells. Used to supple stem cells


What are the risks of cloning?

Cloned animals might not be as healthy
Cloning is new and there might be unknown consequences


What are the concerns with transplanting animal organs to humans?

Viruses could be passed on from animals to humans


What are the ethical concerns with human cloning?

-lots of surrogate pregnancies with high miscarriage rates
-clones often die prematurely and are less healthy
-psychologically damaged


What are the two ways to clone plants?

Tissue culture


Describe the process of using cuttings to clone plants

-take cuttings from parent plant each with a new bud on
-keep cuttings in moist conditions
-dip into rooting hormone powder then plant


What are the advantages of cloned plants?

-can be sure of the characteristics if the plant (genetically identical)
-possible to mass produce plants that may be difficult to grow from seed


What are the disadvantages of cloned plants?

-if plants become susceptible to disease, all plants will be affected
-lack of genetic variation


Give examples of how plants reproduce asexually

Potatoes - grow shoots
Strawberries - have runners
Spider plants- grow new plants off their stem


Describe the process of cloning a plant through tissue culture

1) choose a plant based on characteristics
2) remove several small pieces of tissue from the tip of parent plant
3)grow tissue in growth medium containing nutrients and growth hormones under aseptic conditions
4) move to potting conpost


Why is cloning plants easier than cloning animals?

Many plant cells retain ability to differentiate, unlike animal cells which usually lose this ability at an early stage