B3h-Cloning Flashcards Preview

Biology > B3h-Cloning > Flashcards

Flashcards in B3h-Cloning Deck (16)
1

What is cloning?

Making an exact copy of another organism

2

What are clones?

Genetically identical organisms

3

Who is Dolly the sheep?

The first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell

4

Describe the process of nuclear transfer

1) nucleus removed from egg cell
2) another nucleus from an udder cell is inserted into egg cell
3)cell given an electric shock then starts to divide
4) embryo implanted into uterus of surrogate mother then develops into a clone

5

What are the uses of cloning?

-mass producing animals with desirable characteristics
-producing animals that have been genetically engineered to provide human products
-producing human embryos to supply stem cells for therapy

6

What are the benefits of cloning?

-mass produce animals with desirable characteristics
-human embryos produced by cloning adult body cells. Used to supple stem cells

7

What are the risks of cloning?

Cloned animals might not be as healthy
Cloning is new and there might be unknown consequences

8

What are the concerns with transplanting animal organs to humans?

Viruses could be passed on from animals to humans

9

What are the ethical concerns with human cloning?

-lots of surrogate pregnancies with high miscarriage rates
-clones often die prematurely and are less healthy
-psychologically damaged

10

What are the two ways to clone plants?

Cuttings
Tissue culture

11

Describe the process of using cuttings to clone plants

-take cuttings from parent plant each with a new bud on
-keep cuttings in moist conditions
-dip into rooting hormone powder then plant

12

What are the advantages of cloned plants?

-can be sure of the characteristics if the plant (genetically identical)
-possible to mass produce plants that may be difficult to grow from seed

13

What are the disadvantages of cloned plants?

-if plants become susceptible to disease, all plants will be affected
-lack of genetic variation

14

Give examples of how plants reproduce asexually

Potatoes - grow shoots
Strawberries - have runners
Spider plants- grow new plants off their stem

15

Describe the process of cloning a plant through tissue culture

1) choose a plant based on characteristics
2) remove several small pieces of tissue from the tip of parent plant
3)grow tissue in growth medium containing nutrients and growth hormones under aseptic conditions
4) move to potting conpost

16

Why is cloning plants easier than cloning animals?

Many plant cells retain ability to differentiate, unlike animal cells which usually lose this ability at an early stage