Flashcards in B3h-Cloning Deck (16)
What is cloning?
Making an exact copy of another organism
What are clones?
Genetically identical organisms
Who is Dolly the sheep?
The first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell
Describe the process of nuclear transfer
1) nucleus removed from egg cell
2) another nucleus from an udder cell is inserted into egg cell
3)cell given an electric shock then starts to divide
4) embryo implanted into uterus of surrogate mother then develops into a clone
What are the uses of cloning?
-mass producing animals with desirable characteristics
-producing animals that have been genetically engineered to provide human products
-producing human embryos to supply stem cells for therapy
What are the benefits of cloning?
-mass produce animals with desirable characteristics
-human embryos produced by cloning adult body cells. Used to supple stem cells
What are the risks of cloning?
Cloned animals might not be as healthy
Cloning is new and there might be unknown consequences
What are the concerns with transplanting animal organs to humans?
Viruses could be passed on from animals to humans
What are the ethical concerns with human cloning?
-lots of surrogate pregnancies with high miscarriage rates
-clones often die prematurely and are less healthy
What are the two ways to clone plants?
Describe the process of using cuttings to clone plants
-take cuttings from parent plant each with a new bud on
-keep cuttings in moist conditions
-dip into rooting hormone powder then plant
What are the advantages of cloned plants?
-can be sure of the characteristics if the plant (genetically identical)
-possible to mass produce plants that may be difficult to grow from seed
What are the disadvantages of cloned plants?
-if plants become susceptible to disease, all plants will be affected
-lack of genetic variation
Give examples of how plants reproduce asexually
Potatoes - grow shoots
Strawberries - have runners
Spider plants- grow new plants off their stem
Describe the process of cloning a plant through tissue culture
1) choose a plant based on characteristics
2) remove several small pieces of tissue from the tip of parent plant
3)grow tissue in growth medium containing nutrients and growth hormones under aseptic conditions
4) move to potting conpost