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Flashcards in B3g-new Genes For Old Deck (11)

What is selective breeding?

-select the ones with the best characteristics
-breed them with eachother
-continue this process over several generations


What are the problems with selective breeding?

Reduces gene pool leading to inbreeding
-harmful recessive characteristics will accumulate
-lack of variation


What is genetic engineering?

Transfer of genes from one organism to another so that it produces useful biological products


What are the advantages of genetic engineering?

You can produce organisms with new and useful features very quickly


What is a disadvantage of genetic engineering?

Inserted genes may have unexpected harmful effects


What are some examples of genetic engineering?

1) taking genes that control beta-carotene production and putting it into rice. Humans convert carotene into vitamin A(solving vitamin A deficiency)
2) gene for human insulin production is put into bacteria. Bacteria produces insulin then it is extracted
3) transferring resistance to disease to useful plants like crops


Describe the stages of genetic engineering

1) select gene responsible for desired c
2) cut from DNA using restriction enzymes and isolate
3)insert genes into other organism (ligase enzymes)
4)organism replicates


What are the ethical issues with genetic engineering?

-wrong to engineer purely for human benefit(animal suffering)
-wont stop at plants and animals, decide characteristics of future children
-evolutionary consequences are unknown


What is gene therapy?

Changing a persons genes in an attempt to cure disorders


What are the 2 types of gene therapy?

-changing genes in body cells
-changing genes in gametes


Why is gene therapy involving gametes controversial?

-unexpected consequences causing a new set of problems inherited by all future generations
-creation of 'designer babies'