What is evolution?
The gradual change in a species over time
Who came up with the theory of natural selection to explain how evolution occurs?
What can individuals of the same species do, which individuals of different species cannot?
Reproduce viable offspring
What can be used to study human evolution over time?
Why can’t fossils show smooth changes over time?
As not all fossils have been discovered yet.
Nickname for “Homo habilis”
Nickname for “Ardipithecus remidus”
Nickname for “Homo erectus”
Nickname for “Australopithecus afarensis”
How old is Lucy?
3.2 million years old
How old is Leaky 2?
1.6 million years old
How old is Ardi?
4.4 million years old
How old is Leaky 1?
2.4 - 1.4 million years old
Out of Ardi, Lucy and Leaky 2, which was the shortest?
Do all of the four hominids walk upright?
Yes, although Lucy’s toes were more curved than the rest.
What else is evidence for human evolution?
When was the earliest evidence for stone tools being used by human-like animals found?
3.3 million years ago.
How can scientists age stone tools when they are found underground?
They can assume that the rock around the tool is the same age and then age the rock to find a rough estimate.
Are rocks closer to the surface of the Earth older or younger?
What are the 4 stages that lead to evolution?
What is Genetic Variation?
When individuals in a population vary in their characteristics due to differences in their genes
What is the definition of Competition in biology?
When individuals compete for resources. Some individuals will be better adapted so will get more of the resources.
What is Natural Selection?
When individuals with better adapted variations are more likely to survive and reproduce.
What is Inheritance?
When the next generation of a species contain the better adapted genes in their genome.
What was the name of Charles Darwin’s book?
The Origin of the Species.
What was the name of Charles Darwin’s boat?
Where did Charles Darwin stop to discover his theory of evolution?
The Golapogus Islands.
What did Charles Darwin find when he investigated the Golapogus Islands?
That finches on different islands had developed different beaks to be better adapted to capture and eat their primary food source.
Who was the other scientist that worked on similar theories to Darwin?
Alfred Russel Wallace.
Where did Alfred Russel Wallace travel to?
What did Wallace discover when he studied Indonesian species?
He found there was a large difference in species between two sides of an invisible line running through Indonesia. Marsupials on the Oceania side and Mammals on the Asian.
Who were both Darwin and Wallace inspired by?
What is the name of a limb with 5 fingers?
A pentadactyl limb.
According to Darwin, what does the pentadactyl limb demonstrate?
That evolution links back to a common ancestor.
What did Darwin’s findings challenge?
What does the study on different coloured moths tell us about adaptation?
That if a prey is camouflaged into its surroundings, it is more likely to survive and reproduce, passing on its gene for its colour.
What causes Inherited Variation?
What trait have some bacteria inherited which is causing an issue for humans?
An antibiotic resistance.
What do bacteria with higher antibiotic resistance have a higher chance of?
What will happen if the amount of antibiotic is kept at a constant?
All bacteria will eventually have a resistance to antibiotics.
What can scientists use to classify organisms?
What are the 5 kingdoms?
Prokaryotes Fungi Plants Animals Protoctists
Which kingdom does seaweed belong to?
Which kingdom doesn’t have a nucleus?
Which kingdom has a cell wall made of chitin?
Which kingdom doesn’t have a cell wall?
Which kingdoms cell wall is made up of cellulose?
What can animals be split into?
Vertebrates and Invertebrates
What can vertebrates be split into?
Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds and Mammals. (FARBM)
Give two details about binomial names.
They are in Latin.
They are either in italics or underlined.
The genus is the first word.
The species is the second word.
What are the 3 domains of Life?
Which domain has a nucleus?
Which domain has no unused sections of DNA?
Which domain has no nucleus and some unused sections of DNA?
What is Artificial (Selective) Breeding?
When humans choose certain organisms because they have useful characteristics, such as sheep with thick wool.
What is the name for an animal species with different types within it?
What is the term for plants of a species with different types within the species?
How do you create a genetically modified organism (GMO)?
By adding an unrelated gene to another organism.
What is Genetic Engineering?
When you change the genome of an organism by inserting genes from another.
What is Tissue Culture?
The growing of cells or tissues in a liquid containing nutrients or on a solid medium (such as nutrient agar).
What is a callus?
A hard formation of tissue.
What does “Sterilised” mean and why must everything used in tissue culture be sterile?
Sterilised means that all microorganisms have been killed.
Everything must be sterile because if not, the microorganisms will grow quickly and destroy the cells.
Why would tissue culture be used?
To produce new plants of rare species at threat of extinction.
To grow plants that are difficult to grow from seeds.
To produce genetically identical plants.
What is added during tissue culture which means that plants develop roots and shoots?
Give an example of how tissue culture can be used in medicine.
Studying viruses which cannot replicate outside of cells.
Studying how cells communicate.
Name two risks of selective breeding.
- Some alleles become rare or disappear due to only certain alleles being selectively bred.
- Products of selective breeding are all very similar so if there is a change in conditions a lot of the organisms will be affected.
- Breeding close relatives can create genetic deformities.
- Breeding animals may not always be best for the animal.
What is Insulin?
A hormone produces by the pancreas to control blood glucose levels.
What does Type 1 Diabetes do to the body?
The pancreas cannot make insulin.
What is the name of the enzyme that removes genes from DNA?
What does cutting strands of DNA leave you with.
Sticky ends. (Jagged ends of DNA).
What is an advantage of producing insulin through bacteria instead of through animals?
- Producing insulin through genetically modified bacteria is a lot cheaper than through animals.
- It is also more ethical to farm insulin through genetically modified bacteria rather than animals.
What is a crop?
Something that is grown to produce a useful product.
What is Biological Control?
When organisms are used to control pests.
What is the main risk when using biological control?
Their is a risk that the control agent can become a pest itself. (Example of cane toads in Australia).
What are the three main products in fertilisers?
Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium.
Why do people use fertilisers?
As they increase yield in a crop and that out ways the price they cost.