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Why do we practice repetitive skill drills?

Encourages movements to become almost automatic


Definition of practice and rehearsal...

Practising a skill with teaching points

E.g. Netball practising the chest pass with teaching points


Definition of trial and error?

-sometimes called operant conditioning
- repeatedly trying to learn a skill without teaching points
- learn from it it is successful or if it feel good
E.g. Golf, trying to swing and learn what makes better contact


When someone is demonstrating a skill what is important for the observers?

-the demonstration is successful
-aspects of the demonstration are highlighted, such as the position of the arms
-the demonstration is repeated
-the activity is then practised and rehearsed
-rewards are valuable such as praise


What is the definition of copying or Role Models?

Copying is where you watch someone perform a skill and then try and perform it yourself

Role models is looking at someones technique e.g usain bolts running technique then trying it for yourself


Why do we give feedback?

-response you get from your performance
- can be given during(continuously) or after a performance ( terminal)
-it motivates, changes performance and reinforces learning
-it can be positive or negative


What are the
Different types of feedback?

- knowledge of results
- knowledge of performance
- positive
- continuous
- terminal


What is intrinsic feedback?

- your own body's awareness of its balancing positioning and feel ( proprioception)
- it feels right
- a free throw in basket ball that you know is going in


What is extrinsic feedback?

-from the outside
- a coach, teacher, team mate, parents, crowd, rewards, video playback
- coach tells you that you leant back too far on your free kick


What are the 4 ways of learning a skill?

-copying others
-trial and error
- role models


What is knowledge of results?

- external
-the outcome of action e.g. world record PB, score a goal, the score


What is knowledge of performance?

-(external or internal)
-how you performed e.g. feedback from your technique
- important so you know what you need to improve
- can be about technique and strategies


What are other examples of feedback?

- positive --> praise from the crowd
-Negative --> told off for shooting instead of passing
-continuous --> during performance
-terminal --> after a performance


What is intrinsic motivation?

- is the internal drive or willpower that people have to participate in physical activities or perform well in sport


Examples of intrinsic motivation?

- fun
- pride of winning


Examples of Extrinsic motivation?

- rewards
-to please others e.g. family or team
-financial rewards e.g. bonuses/ prize money


examples of motivation for a official?

- money
- be a role model
-as a career route
-to try something different
-help be more active


Examples of motivation for a leader?

-pride of winning
-rewards e.g. trophies


Why do we set goals?

-to stick to an activity and stick to the program and not adhere from it
-control anxiety and stress
-improve and optimize performance
-increase motivation
-increase self-confidence


What is SMART goal setting?

-S--> Specific --> the activity is specific to your needs
-M--> Measurable --> goals need to be assessed to show progress
-A--> Agreed --> agreed with a teacher/coach
-R-->Realistic --> not too challenging and must be able to achieve it
-T --> Time-phased --> goals should be done over a period of time


How might you motivate someone to follow an active, healthy lifestyle?

-using intrinsic, extrinsic motivation methods
-give rewards
-make it enjoyable
-set goals
- show role models
-punish unhealthy/ inactive behavior
-more information about healthy eating
- measure fitness and show what needs to be changed
- show progress made and give positive encouragment


how would you help a young person stick to their exercise and healthy lifestyle program?

-set goals
-encourage and motivate
-educate them on the benefits
-show negative consequences for not following the program
-socialization with others of similar interests
- role models


What are the 5 functions of the skeletal system?

-Shape/Support --> importance for a healthy posture, no back ache, better body shape to throw a discus
-Blood cell production --> bone marrow of long bones, importance of red blood cells for energy, oxyigenate muscles to move, white to fight infection
-Protection --> importance of healthy bones to avoid injury and allow sustained involvement in physical activity, protect vital organs
-mineral store --> calcium for healthy strong bones, iron to help with transportation of oxygen to the working muscles
-Movement --> by providing areas or sites for muscles to attach to, toprovide a system of lever to help us move


What is the structure of the skeleton?

-axial -->main source of support and center of the skeleton, protection. cranium, vertebral column, sternum and rib cage
-appendicular --> consists of the remaining bones and including the girdles that join these bones onto the axial skeleton


What is a synovial joint?

-a joint that allows movement
-hinge joint --> knee joint
-ball and socket --> shoulder joint


What is the structure of a synovial joint?

-a joint where two or bones meet
-bones are joined together by ligaments, muscles and tendons
- in a joint capsule lined with synovial membrane with lubrication provided by synovial fluid
-and the ends of the bones are covered by hyaline cartilage


What is the function of the synovial fluid?

- lubricates the joint
-nourishes the cartilage
- reduces friction
-prevents injury
-keeps joint free from disease
-secreted by the synovial membrane


What is a ligament?

-strong elastic fibres that join bones together and become less elastic with age
-very tough and resilient
- can be pulled, torn or twisted which could cause a dislocation --> try and prevent movements that are too extreme
-stabilizes a joint


What is cartilage?

- soft connective tissue at the end of bones
-has no blood supply but receive nutrients from diffusion from surrounding capillary networks --> therefore take a long time to heal
- shock absorber
-helps prevent friction
- protects bones from wear and tear


What is a tendon?

-attaches muscles to bone
-not elastic