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Flashcards in B5 - Growth And Devlopment Deck (63)
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1

Where does mitosis take place?

In the nucleus of body cells

2

Tissue is made up of...

Cells of the same type
e.g muscle cells - muscle tissue

3

Organs are made up of different ...

Tissues grouped together eg the muscular tissue

4

Body systems are made up of ...

Organs e.g the circulatory system

5

What is the term for fertilised eggs?

Zygote

6

Zygotes divide by mitosis to form what?

Embryo

7

What are embryonic stem cells?

Cup to and including the eight cell stage, cells are identical and can produce any kind of cell in the body.

8

When cells differentiate they...

Become specialised

9

What are adult stem cells?

Cells that can only differentiate to a limited number of cell types e.g bone marrow cells

10

how do cells become specialised?

Genes enable the cells to function by switching on that part of the gene. Any gene can be switched on.

11

What is xylem?

A specialised plant cell that transports water and mineral salts

12

What is phloem?

Specialised plant cell that transports the products of photosynthesis

13

Cells in regions called meristems are...

Unspecialised

14

When can plant cells differentiate into different types of cells?

When meristems cells have divided into two

15

In plants what are the only types of cells that divide?

Meristems

16

Where are meristems located in a plant?

The tip of shoots
Side buds
Length of plant stem and root
Tip of root

17

By decision of meristem cells followed by enlargement of one daughter cell, meristems produce growth in...

Height and width

18

Give examples of plant organs

Stems, roots, flowers, leaves

19

How do you do a plant cutting?

Take a section of a plant stem that includes parts of meristems and replant.

20

How do you produce a clone of a plant?

Doing a plant cutting

21

What is the name of a plant hormone that promotes plant growth?

Auxins

22

What is phototropism?

The plants response to the direction of light.

23

Where do auxins redistribute toward when a plant is exposed to light?

The shady side so it grows more, causing the plant to bend toward the light.

24

When are daughter cells produced?

When the cells divide by mitosis.

25

What are the two cells called that are produced by mitosis?

Daughter cells

26

What are gametes?

Sex cells

27

The process there the number of organelles increase is called cell growth an occurred when ...

The DNA in each chromosome is copied

28

Cell growth is ...

When the cell increases in size and the organelles increase as each chromosome is copied

29

The process of mitosis is ...

When two daughter cells, each identical to their parent cell and containing an identical set of chromosomes are produced as the strands of each double chromosome separate and two nuclei are formed.

30

What is meiosis?

The type of cell devision produced by gametes

31

How is meiosis different to mitosis?

Cells with only half the number of chromosomes are produced

32

What process is essential in producing sex cells?

Meiosis

33

The process of miosis is...

Chromosomes are copied and pair up, cells divide into two, and divide into two again so there is one allele of each chromosome, producing gametes that contain 23 chromosomes.

34

That are the two steps the cell cycle involves?

Cell growth and cell devision.

35

What are organelles?

Structures in cells having a function

36

Describe cell devision

Two strands of the DNA in each chromosome seperate, two nuclei form, then the cytoplasm divides

37

Which cells in an organism have the same gene?

All of them

38

What is the dry tyre of DNA

Double helix

39

What are the rungs of the ladder in DNA called?

Bases

40

Bases always pair in the same way, what are these pairings?

A-T / T-A
C-G / G-C

41

How can you remember how bases are paired up?

@GingerCat.com

42

What are the order of bases in the gene instructions for?

The production of proteins

43

What type of cell can be switched on to produce any type of specialised cell?

Embryonic stem cells?

44

Which cells have the potential to produce cells to repair and replace damaged cells?

Embryonic and adult stem cells

45

Why is the use of embryonic stem cells the subject an ethical issue?

The embryo is destroyed. Some believe embryos have the right to life from when they are conceived.

46

What is mammalian cloning?

The switching on of a gene to produce the cell required under carefully controlled conditions.

47

What type of cloning has overcome some ethical issues of using enviro nix stem cells?

Therapeutic cloning

48

Wha does therapeutic cloning involve?

-put nucleus of a body cell in empty egg cell.
-Fuse together
Stimulate egg to divide and make nucleus.

49

What is mitosis?

Type of cell decision which produces new cells for growth and repair.

50

How do our cells make sure they only synthesise the proteins the need?

By switching genes on and off

51

Where does protein synthesis occur?

In the cyctoplasm

52

What carries the genetic to the cyctoplasm?

Messenger RNA (mRNA)

53

Hat does mRNA do?

Carry instructions for the order of proteins

54

Where are proteins assembled.

On organelles in the cytoplasm called ribosomes

55

What what happens when the order and sequence of the animo acids is different?

Different types of proteins are made, with different properties

56

What is the sequence of the animo acid determined by?

The genetic code

57

Where does RNA come from?

The DNA unzips and the messenger molecule (mRNA) copies the DNA

58

Why does mRNA have to be made?

DNA's double helix is to big to leave the nucleus

59

Where does mRNA go once it leaves the nucleus?

It attaches to a ribosome

60

What is tRNA and what for it do?

It is transfer RNA which picks up a chemical signal from the mRNA and ferry's animo acid to the ribosome where they are bonded together

61

What is the name of the process were proteins are made?

Protein synthesis

62

What is a zygote?

A fertilised egg

63

What are the units that make up DNA?

Bases, sugar, phosphates