B6 Inheritance, variation and evolution Flashcards Preview

AQA GCSE Biology > B6 Inheritance, variation and evolution > Flashcards

Flashcards in B6 Inheritance, variation and evolution Deck (106)
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1

What is sexual reproduction?

Sexual reproduction is the joining (fusion) of male and female gametes.

2

What are the names of the male gametes in animals?

The male gametes in animals are called sperm cells.

3

What are the names of the female gametes in animals?

The female gametes in animals are called egg cells.

4

What are the names of male gametes in flowering plants?

The male gametes in flowering plants are pollen.

5

What are the names of female gametes in flowering plants?

The female gametes in plants are egg cells.

6

What causes variation in sexual reproduction?

In sexual reproduction there is mixing of genetic information which leads to variety in the offspring.

7

Name the process that produces gametes.

Meiosis produces gametes.

8

How many parents are involved in asexual reproduction?

Asexual reproduction involves only one parent.

9

Is there fusion of gametes in asexual reproduction?

No, there is no fusion of gametes in asexual reproduction. 

10

Is there mixing of genetic information in asexual reproduction?

There is no mixing of genetic information in asexual reproduction. 

11

Are offspring produced by asexual reproduction genetically identical or genetically different?

Offspring produced by asexual reproduction are genetically identical (clones). 

12

In asexual reproduction, is mitosis or meiosis involved?

Only mitosis is involved in asexual reproduction.

13

What does meiosis do to the number of chromosomes in gametes?

Meiosis halves the number of chromosomes in gametes. 

14

What does fertilisation do to the number of chromosomes?

Fertilisation restores the full number of chromosomes. 

15

How do cells in reproductive organs divide?

Cells in reproductive organs divide by meiosis. 

16

What are the cells produced in reproductive organs called?

The cells produced in reproductive organs are called gametes.

17

Describe the process in which gametes are made.

When a cell divides to form gametes:

• copies of the genetic information are made

• the cell divides twice to form four gametes,    

   each with a single set of chromosomes

• all gametes are genetically different from each

   other.

18

What is it called when gametes join?

Gametes join at fertilisation

19

What happens to the number of chromosomes at fertilisation?

The normal number of chromosomes is restored.

20

Does a fertilised cell divide by mitosis or meiosis?

A fertilised cell divides by mitosis.

21

After fertilisation, what happens to the number of cells?

After fertilisation, the number of cells increases.

22

What is an embryo?

An embryo is an organism in the early stages of development.

23

What happens to cells as the embryo develops?

As the embryo develops cells differentiate.

24

What is the genetic material in the nucleus of a cell composed of?

The genetic material in the nucleus of a cell is composed of a chemical called DNA.

25

What is DNA?

DNA is a polymer made up of two strands forming a double helix.

26

What structures is DNA contained in?

DNA is contained in structures called chromosomes.

27

What is a gene?

A gene is a small section of DNA on a chromosome.

28

What does a gene code for?

Each gene codes for a particular sequence of amino acids, to make a specific protein.

29

What is the genome of an organism?

The genome of an organism is the entire genetic material of that organism.

30

Name three reasons why understanding the human genome is important.

  • search for genes linked to different types of disease
  • understanding and treatment of inherited disorders
  • use in tracing human migration patterns from the past.