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Flashcards in Bacteria Deck (27):
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Nitrogen Fixation

Turning atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into a usable form called Ammonia (NH3)

1

Name two organisms that participate in nitrogen fixation.

Cyanobacteria
Methanogens

2

Anabaena (4 facts)

Can use photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation
Only one at a time
Type of Cyanobacteria
Unicellular

3

Heterocyst (2 facts)

-A specialized cell that does nitrogen fixation in some filamentous
-Cyanobacteria like Anabaena
-Thick cell wall that doesn't let oxygen enter

4

Class Alpha Proteobacteria
1 fact
(2 examples)

-Some sort of eukaryotic host
-Rhizobium-fix plants nitrogen and share it with plant
-Agrobacterium-May be a parasite and cause tumors in plants

5

Beta Proteobacteria (1 example)

Found in soil, fix N2 nitrosomonas
Nitrosomonas

6

What are the 5 phylums in Domain Bacteria.

-Proteobacteria
-Chlamydias
-Spirochetes
-Cyanobacteria
-Gram positive bacteria

7

What are the 5 classes in Phylum Proteobacteria.

-Alpha
-Beta
-Delta
-Beta
-Epsilon

8

Gamma Proteobacteria (3 examples)

-Thlomargarita namibienis- chemoautotroph inorganic molecule sulfur
-Legionella- heterotrophs, Legionarres disease
-Escherichia Coli-chemoheterotroph, normally not pathogenic
-Salmonella-chemoheterotroph
-Common pathogen that caused Black Plague, spread through rats
-Vibrio cholerae-cause Cholera

9

Delta Proteobacteria (Examples)

Secrete slime

-Chondromyces come together and form wolf packs when the environment becomes harsh
-Bdellovibrios- change into bacteria at 100 nm/s or 150 mph

10

Epsilon Proteobacteria
1 fact
(2 examples)

Pathogenic to humans and animals

-Helicobacter pylori- inflammation in stomach cause alcers
-Campylobacter- causes blood poisoning, diarrhea if we eat raw or undercooked poultry

11

Phylum Chlamydias
2 facts
(1 example)

Parasites can only survive within animal cells because they need ATP
Gram-negative they lack peptidoglycan


Clamydia can cause blind less
Chalymidia can be seen in koala bears

12

Phylum Spirochaetes
2 facts
(3 examples)

Helical heterotrophs
Spiral through environ. By rotating flagellum like filaments
Many are free living



-Leptospira
-Borrelia cause Lyme disease
-Treponema palladium-cause of syphilis

13

Phylum Cyanobacteria
2 facts
(2 examples)

Photoautotrophs
Can be solitary or filamentous

-Aphanizomenon- cause killing of dogs
-Microcystis- release toxins in Lake Erie if too many cause low 02 in water

14

Gram Positive Bacteria (2 examples)

-Bacillus anthracis-cause anthrax, forms endospore and can affect skin and respitory system
-Actinomycetes- mostly found in soil kill off microbes and used as antibiotics

15

Gram Positive Bacteria
(Clostridium botulinum)

-Clostridium botulinum-
-Found in bottom of the ocean because there is no oxygen
-Ducks got botulism
-Die off waterdog
-Humans can get it if they can't properly close cans

16

Gram Positive Bacteria
(Clostridium tetani)

-Anaerobic bacteria can form endospores
-Cause tetnis
-Tennis racquet shape

17

Gram Positive Bacteria Phylum Firmicutes (2 species)

-Lactobacillus help our digestive system, probiotic

1. Prevotella sp.- found in obese people (high sugar diet)
2. Bacteroides sp.- found in skinny people (less sugar more fat)

18

All the pathogenic prokaryotes known to date are...

Bacteria

19

Most widely spread pest-carried disease?

Lyme disease caused by bacterium carried by ticks that live on deer and field mice

Arthritis
Heart disease
Death
Nervous Disorders

20

Exotoxins
(2 examples)

Proteins secreted by certain bacteria and other organisms

-Cholera-diarrhea
-Clostridium Botulinum- when jars aren't closed properly

21

4 Facts about Proteobacteria

Gram negative bacteria
Photo autotrophs
Chemoautotrophs
Heterotrophs

22

Actinomycetes

Gram positive bacteria
Cause TB and leprosy
Decompose organic matter in soil

23

Streptomyces

Gran positive Bacteria
Source of many antibiotics

24

Straphlococcus and Streptococcus

Gram positive bacteria

25

Pathogens

Parasites that cause diseases

26

Gram positive stable toilet paper

Staphlo/Stepto
TB
Athrax
Botulism
Leprosey
Tetnis
Phylum Firmicutes