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Flashcards in Seed Plants Deck (68):
0

What advantages do seeds offer?

Food supply
Protective coating
Can withstand desiccation
Can travel further

1

Seeds

Embryo and food supply surrounded by a protective coat

2

Are seeds multicellular or unicellular?

Multicellular

3

What super group are Seedless plants in?

Archaeplastida

4

What two things are key adaptations for life on land?

Seeds
Pollen grains

5

In addition to seeds what are the 4 things common to all seed plants?

Reduced gametophytes (inside sporo)
Heterospory
Ovules
Pollen

6

Look of gametophytes of seedless vascular plants?

Visible to the naked eye

7

Look of gametophytes of seed plants

Microscopic

8

Heterospory

Produce 2 kinds of spores
Mega sporangia
Micro spores

9

Pollen grain

Structure consisting of male gametophyte enclosed within a pollen wall

10

Ovule

Megaspore or female structure

11

Pollen

Male sperm that doesn't need water use wind or pollenator

12

What two sister classes so seed plants form?

Gymnosperms
Angiosperms

13

Gymnosperm/Naked Seeds (4 facts)

Seeds with nothing surrounding them
Usually have cones like pine trees
Use wind to reproduce
Typically on cones

14

When did gymnosperms originate?

About 305 MYA

15

What allowed gymnosperms to become the most dominant plant of the Mesozoic era? (2 things)

The tough armor
Thicker cuticle

16

What are the 4 phylums of gymnosperms?

Gnetophyta
Ginkophyta
Cycadophyta
Coniferophyta

17

Phylum Gnetoohyta (2 examples)

Tropical
Linked by DNA

-Welswitschia-largest leaves live in desert
-Ephedra-produce Ephedrine also called Mornon tea, used as decongestant

18

What are the advantages of seeds? (3 things)

Multicellular
Dormant for long time
Supply of stored food

19

Phylum Ginkophyta

Endangered in China
Male and female seeds
Female produce fleshy seeds that stink
Ginko biloba is only surviving member of this phylum
Deciduous fan blade leaf

20

Phylum Cycadophyta
Example

Large cones
Palm like leaves
Not common today

Cycas revoluta

21

Phylum Coniferophyta (6 examples)

Largest group alive today
Large trees like cypress
Mostly evergreens
Conifers-keep leaves all year

-Douglas for
-Sequoia
-Bristlecone pine
-Common juniper
-Tamarack
-Spruce

22

What are angiosperms commonly know as?

Seed plants

23

What 2 things do angiosperms include?

Flowers
Fruits

24

Angiosperms (1 example)

Cause hay fever
Shed in millions
Wind carries them

-Rafflesia which attracts flies as their pollinator

25

What influences the evolution of plants and vice versa?

Animals

26

Do a small or large portion of angiosperms fertilize through wind?

Small portion

27

What are the 4 modified leaves on a flower?

Sepals
Petals
Stamens
Carpels

28

Flower

Angiosperm structure specialized for sexual reproduction

29

Sepals

At base usually green and enclose flower

30

Petals

Interior to sepals, brightly colored and help attract pollinators

31

Stamens

Produce micro spores that have male gametophytes

32

Carpels

Produce megastores that have female gametophytes

33

Fruit

Mature ovary but can include other flower parts

34

What two things can plants either be?

Dry
Fleshy

35

Fruits protect _____ and aid in their ______.

Seeds
Dispersal

36

Examples of fruits

Tomatoes
Grapefruit
Nectarine
Hazelnut
Milkweed
Beans

37

How do various fruit adaptations help to disperse seeds?

Water
Cling to animals fur and humans
Wings help them fly through sky
Edible fruits

38

Cockleburs

Fruit that can stick to clothes
Type of angiosperm

39

Kopi luwak

Civet eats coffee seeds

40

Cross pollination

Transfer or pollen from an anther of a flower on one plant to the stigma

41

Why do most flowers have mechanisms to ensure cross pollination?

Generic variability

So they won't interbreed

42

How many living species so angiosperms comprise?

250,000

43

Previously what two groups were angiosperms divided into?

Monocots
Dicots

44

DNA studies suggest that monocots form a.... but dicots are....

Clade
Polyphyletic

45

What Phylum also has the name The Abominable Phylum?

Phylum Anthophyta

46

Who coined the phrase the Abominable phylum?

Darwin

47

What does Phylum Anthophyta refer to? What 4 things?

All angiosperms

-Eudicots
-Monocots
-Basal Angiosperms
-Magnoliids

48

When did Angiosperm of Phylum Anthophyta originate?

140 MYA

49

Monocots
(4 examples?

1/4 of angiosperms
One cotyledon inside their seeds

Rice
Corn
Bananas
Orchids

50

Cotyledon

First and tiny leaf

51

Eudicots (3 facts)
(5 examples)

2/3 of angiosperms
2 cotyledons inside their seeds
Include dicots

-Zucchini
-Rose
-Pea plants
-Oak tree
-Maple tree

52

How do chemoheterotrophic plants acquire energy?

Have to ingest energy source and carbon source

53

4 Examples of chemoheterotrophic plants?

1. Squawroot
2. Ghost/Indian pipe
-Both are parasitic trees in Ohio
3. Rafflesia
4. Mistletoe
-Both are parasitic and steal carbon from host

54

Are carnivorous plants photo autotrophs?

Yes an example is the Venus flu trap which eat insects because they live in low nitrogen environments

55

Where do most of our food come from?

Angiosperms

56

Name the common foods that come from angiosperms.

Wheat
Rice
Maize
Potatoes
Sweet potatoes
Cassava
90% of calories ate by humans

57

How much corn is fed to livestock?

38% of US corn

58

What else do we depend on plants for?

Medicine
Raw materials for construction
Wood
Fuel

59

GMO (5 facts)

1. Double edges sword
2. We have altered there genomes
3. May become invincible (canola)
4. Organisms we don't want to kill May be killed (butterflies)
5. Modified crops aren't tested or regulated adequately

60

Photoautotroph

Get energy from sunlight and carbon

61

Chemoautotroph

Get energy from taking in organic compound like silver and carbon dioxide

62

Photoheterotroph

Get energy from sun and absorb carbon compound

63

What are flowering plants commonly known as?

Angiosperms

64

What does the word angiosperm refer to?

Seeds contained in fruits

65

In angiosperms the flower of the sporophyte is composed of what?

And what's the catch?

Male and female structures

Reproductive structures are separated

66

Is double fertilization unique to angiosperms or gymnosperms?

Angiosperms

67

Threats to plant diversity?

Deforestation