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Flashcards in Bacteria Deck (76)
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1

-- include organisms that have a prokaryotic cell that lacks a nucleus (nonexistent kingdom that divides into the domains Archaea and Bacteria)

monera

2

bacterial species that produce their own nutrients through the process of photosynthesis, using CO2 from the environment

photoautotrophs

3

bacteria that perform photosynthesis but cannot use CO2 from the environment

photoheterotrophs

4

get their energy from inorganic compounds, and their carbon needs are obtained from CO2

chemoautotrophs

5

energy is obtained from inorganic substances but carbon can't be obtained from CO2

chemoheterotrophs

6

some bacteria are -- since they always require oxygen for aerobic cellular respiration

obligate aerobes

7

never need oxygen, generally not dividing, can be killed by exposure to oxygen

obligate anaerobes

8

require oxygen sometimes

facultative anaerobes

9

circular in shape

cocci

10

pair cocci

diplo

11

cluster cocci

staphyl

12

chain cocci

strepto

13

rod or oblong shaped; they may occur in chains

bacilli

14

spiral shape

spirilli

15

genome is located in cytoplasm in a region called -- and is not bound by a membrane

nucleoid

16

bacterial genome usually consists of a single, circular piece of DNA that does not contain many -- as opposed to eukaryotic cells

introns and exons

17

bacterial envelope consists of the cell membrane, --, cell wall, and outer membrane

periplasm

18

cell envelope consists of a cell membrane and thick wall of peptidoglycan

gram-positive

19

envelope consists of a thin cell wall made of an outer membrane and peptidoglycan, periplasm, and inner plasma membrane

gram-negative

20

space between the inner and outer membrane

periplasm

21

cell wall is made of peptidoglycan (--) which is a polymer of disaccharides that are crossed linked with a chain of 4-6 amino acids

murein

22

disaccharide of peptidoglycan is composed of repeating units of N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetlmuramic acid, and the latter will form an -- link with the short chain of amino acids

amide

23

peptide -- will form between two neighboring peptide chains, allowing the cell wall to increase in thickness as these -- form between other neighboring peptide chains as well

cross-bridge

24

common target of antibiotics such as penicillin and vancomycin is preventing the proper synthesis of the --

cell wall

25

gram negative cells contain an extra membrane in addition to the plasma membrane

outer membrane

26

face of the outer membrane that is pointed to the interior of the cell will contain -- that are attached to the cell wall

lipoproteins

27

face of the outer membrane that is pointed to the exterior of the cell will contain -- which are lipids attached to polysaccharides

lipopolysaccharides (LPS)

28

LPS are -- and are not harmful so as long as they are part of the cell

endotoxins

29

if the cell ruptures and LPS are released they will begin to -- the immune system of the host

overstimulate

30

space contained within the plasma membrane of the cell

cytoplasm